美国专利
技术转移及商业化

美国专利

专利清单请参阅英文版。

#Patent TitleGranted Patent NoPatent Granting DateTechnology DivisionAbstract / Drawing
1Systems and methods for managing wireless communications using link space information7,366,5192008/04/29COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide for management of wireless communications through the development and use of link space information. Such link space information provides link-centric information with respect to wireless links of a network to thereby provide a view of the network which takes into account phenomena affecting the wireless links. Utilizing such link space information, automated management of various aspects of a wireless network may be provided, including automated provisioning, management, and/or optimization of network links. Network operations may include use of link space information in providing network management applications such as automatic fault management, automatic performance management, operation advisories, and/or the like.
2Multiband branch radiator antenna element6,975,2782005/12/13COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide multi-band antenna elements using multiple radiating branches interconnected with a feed plate, thereby providing a multi-band antenna element having a single feed. Additionally or alternatively, a wide band antenna configuration is provided utilizing multiple radiating branches of a multi-band antenna element of the present invention. Embodiments utilize one or more reflectors, such as to provide directivity and/or radiation pattern shaping, including utilizing one or more radiating branches of a multi-band antenna element as a reflector for another one or more radiating branches of the multi-band antenna.
3Wideband shorted tapered strip antenna6,876,3342005/04/05COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide a tapered conductor strip adapted for broadband wireless communication. Embodiments provide a conductor strip which is curved along its face, thereby providing an aperture taper. The conductor strip configured to provide an aperture taper may be placed over a planar ground plane to form a wideband tapered strip antenna element. Embodiments further provide a conductor strip which is curved along an edge or edges thereof, thereby providing an impedance taper. The dimensions of the impedance taper are preferably selected to provide a desired characteristic impedance with respect to an antenna element formed therefrom. Embodiments may further include a shorting pin or shorting plate configuration to generate an additional mode.
4System and method for providing multimedia wireless messages across a broad range and diversity of networks and user terminal display equipment8,732,2392014/05/20AIBDDisclosed are systems and methods which establish a referral gateway for facilitating multi-media content, or other rich content, exchange among users and user devices. Embodiments connect a WLAN, or any specific local area network, with a mobile cellular network for efficiently transmitting messages including rich content. In operation, a sending user does not need to download particular content to form a message, but instead sends a code to a referral gateway which compiles the message and arranges for delivery, such as over a fixed network, a cellular network, etcetera. Using such systems and methods neither the receiver nor the sender are limited by their respective network and/or user device capabilities.
5Low cost, multi-beam, multi-band and multi-diversity antenna systems and methods for wireless communications7,075,4852006/06/11COMSystems and methods for employing switched phase shifters and a feed network to provide a low cost multiple beam antenna system for wireless communications. The present systems and methods may also facilitate multi-band communications and employ multi-diversity. The present systems and methods allow communication systems to achieve enhanced performance for communication or other services such as location tracking. The present systems and methods may employ switched phase shifters, multiple diversity antennas and/or a feed network having a multi-layer construction to provide an antenna system with low losses, low external component count and/or which is thin and compact.
6Method for reducing bit rate requirements for encoding multimedia data7,706,4402010/04/27AIBDSome representative embodiments are directed to systems and methods for compressing a data set. In one embodiment, a method comprises receiving a frame of data to be encoded, generating a residual frame that represents a difference between the received frame and one or several reference frames, performing a respective sum of absolute differences (SAD) calculation for each block within the residual frame, and applying a transform function to each data value within the residual frame, wherein the transform function is at least a function of a SAD value calculated for the block containing the respective data value.
7Systems and methods for wireless network range extension7,428,4282008/09/23COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide high bandwidth data communication with respect to a large coverage area using smart antenna and/or directional antenna techniques. Embodiments provide extended wireless local area network (WLAN) coverage areas using a directional antenna, with the cooperation of a cellular system or proprietary WLAN infrastructure to perform best antenna beam pattern estimation and signaling. Stations disposed beyond a WLAN coverage area may establish contact and exchange signaling information with an access point through a secondary control channel. Such a secondary control channel signaling may be relatively low bandwidth and may be utilized to identify the need to communicate data, to identify a "best" directional antenna beam through which to communicate data, etcetera. Payload data may then be transmitted at a high bit rate through one or more smart antenna beams targeted at the appropriate stations.
8WLAN Access Point with Extended Coverage Area8,280,4432012/10/02COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide high bandwidth data communication with respect to a large coverage area using smart antenna and/or directional antenna (referred to herein as multi-beam antenna) technology. Circuitry may be provided at a WLAN AP to provide selection of particular antenna beams used in the downlink and/or uplink, control of multicast transmission, control of unicast transmission, and to provide antenna pattern shaping techniques. Embodiments implement multi-beam antenna technology with little or no hardware modifications to AP circuitry. Other embodiments implement multi-beam technology using radio front-end and/or radio hardware modifications to AP circuitry. Various diversity techniques may be implemented, such as selection diversity, maximum ratio combining, and equal gain combing. To provide desired antenna pattern shaping, phase offsets with respect to a signal as transmitted in each antenna beam may be employed.
9Security Gatekeeper for a Packetized Voice Communication Network7,742,4632010/06/22AIBDAdmission control means for controlling admission of traffic into a voice communication network, the admission control means comprises means for examining a call control message of a call control dialogue when admission of said traffic into said voice communication network is requested, the admission control means admit a traffic into said voice communication network only if the call control message accompanying the traffic admission request satisfies a pre-determined admission criterion.
10Authentic Device Admission Scheme for a Secure Communication Network, Especially a Secure IP Telephony Network7,836,4882010/11/16AIBDAn admission scheme is provided for selective admission of voice data packets to a voice network from a communication network having data and voice packets. The scheme can be implemented using a device such as a network switch. According to the admission scheme, the MAC address of a device is acquired and stored upon admission of the device to the voice network. The source MAC address of data packets is checked before the packets are admitted from the communication network to the voice network. A packet is admitted to the voice network only if the MAC address is registered with the voice network.
11Intelligent Switching for Secure and Reliable Voice-over-IP PBX Service7,920,5482011/04/05AIBDA switching apparatus for switching packetized voice traffic between a plurality of communication devices, the switching apparatus comprises a multi-layer switch, a plurality of communication ports, control means and ingress processing means, said packetized voice traffic comprises call control packets and medium packets which are exchanged between the communication devices via said communication ports, wherein medium packet traffic from a first communication device to a second communication device is split into a first call segment and a second call segment, the first call segment originates from said first communication devices and terminates at said switching apparatus, the second call segment originates from said switching apparatus and terminates at said second communication device, each medium packet from said first communication device is processed by said ingress processing means of said switching apparatus before onward transmission to said second communication device.
12Transmission Power Control Over a Wireless Ad-hoc Network7,693,1192010/04/06COMA method for controlling transmission power on a node over a wireless ad-hoc network which includes a plurality of sender, intermediate and receiver nodes is provided. Initially, levels of the transmission power of the node are configured. The node then exchange information with its neighboring nodes by sending out a global signal. After exchanging the information, the node identifies a node coverage for the level of the transmission power. The node then determines an effective transmission power (ETP). Finally, the ETP is used to form a virtual cluster.
13Multi-hop routing method with bandwidth reservation in wireless network7,720,0162010/05/18COMA routing method for communication from a source node to a destination node in a distributed wireless network which comprises a plurality of wireless mobile nodes. The method has the following steps: (1) a query step where the source node sends a route request query, which is relayed by one or more mobile nodes along one or more paths to the destination node; (2) a route reply step where the destination node upon receiving the route request query sends a route reply packet, which is relayed by one or more mobile nodes along one or more selected paths back to the source node; (3) a bandwidth reservation step performed during the same time when step (2) is performed, where each said mobile node that receives said route reply packet carries out bandwidth reservation, resulting one or more paths with bandwidth reservation from said source node to said destination node; (4) an outgoing path selection step where a single path is selected from the paths with bandwidth reservation resulted in step (3); and (5) a proactive erasure step where each mobile node which has bandwidth reservation but is not in the path selected in step (4) removes its bandwidth reservation.
14Photo-Detectors and Optical Devices Incorporating Same7,309,8542007/12/18IOTSENAn opto-electronic device comprising a plurality of photo-detectors, each said photo-detector comprises a plurality of optical detection segments which are connected in parallel, the optical detection segments of said plurality of optical-detectors are interposed so that an optical detection segment of a photo-detector is intermediate optical detection segments of another photo-detector and an optical detection segment of that another photo-detector is intermediate optical detection segments of said photo-detector.
15Opto-Electronic Device for Optical Fibre Applications7,410,3062008/08/12IOTSENAn opto-electronic device comprising opto-electronic circuitry on a lead-frame and an optical guide receptacle for receiving an optical guide coupler, the opto-electronic circuitry comprises signal conversion means whereby an optical signal can be converted into an electrical signal or vice versa, the optical guide receptacle comprises means for guiding reception of an optical guide coupler whereby an optical guide coupler is optically aligned with the signal conversion means when received by said optical guide receptacle.
16Optical Receiver with a Modulated Photo-Detector7,592,6152009/09/22IOTSENA distance measuring apparatus includes an optical transmitter having an optical source for transmitting modulated optical signals towards a remote object, and an optical receiver for detecting the modulated optical signals upon reflection from the remote object. The optical receiver includes a photo-detector which is configured for gated detection of optical signals by gating signals applied thereto. The gating signals are arranged to be in a constant time or phase relationship with the modulated optical signals. The optical receiver calculates the distance of the remote object with reference to delay information between transmitted and detected optical signals, with the delay information being determined by gated detection of optical signals at the photo-detector.
17Driver for an Optical Transmitter7,639,9542009/12/29IOTSENA modulation driver for delivering an output modulation current for driving an optical source of an optical transmitter, the output modulation current comprises a first modulation current region characterised with a first temperature gradient and a second modulation current region characterised with a second temperature gradient, said first modulation current region and said second modulation region being for delivering modulation current at a first temperature range and a second temperature range, temperatures of said second temperature being higher than temperatures of said first temperature range, said second temperature gradient being larger than said first temperature gradient.
18Auto-regressive method and filter for denoising images and videos7,657,1132010/02/02CCTA method and apparatus for denoising digital images or videos, which is an extension of the spatial varying filter (SVF) by using a past filtered pixel, instead of the current pixel itself as the input for producing an output for the current pixel. Based on this concept, a number of denoising filters are provided, including Auto-regressive Spatial Varying Filter (ARSVF), Modified Auto-regressive Spatial Varying Filter (MARSVF), Auto-Regressive Spatiotemporal Varying Filter (ARSTVF) which is an extension of Spatiotemporal Varying Filter (STVF), Auto-regressive Motion Compensated Spatiotemporal Varying Filter (ARMCSTVF) which is extension of Motion Compensated Spatiotemporal Varying Filter (MCSTVF), and Selective Auto-regressive Motion Compensated Spatiotemporal Varying Filter (SARMCSTVF).
19Light emitting device with at least two alternately driven light emitting diodes7,659,5442010/02/09IOTSENA light emitting device includes a first light emitting diode (LED) emitting a first light emission of at least a first wavelength, and a second light emitting diode emitting a second light emission of at least a second wavelength. The second LED is placed in close proximity to the first LED such that after a mixing length from the first and second LEDs, a combination of the first and second lights is perceived as one color in the human vision. In use, the first and second LEDs are alternately driven by a power source in the time domain.
20Light Emitting Device7,659,5462010/02/09IOTSENA light emitting device firstly includes a light emitting diode (LED) structure, having a top surface with a light emitting region. The device also has a heterojunction within the device structure, the heterojunction having a p-type and an n-type semiconductor layer, and a plurality of electrodes positioned on the top surface, each being electrically connected to one of the p-type and n-type semiconductor layers. At least a first and a second electrodes are connected to a same type semiconductor layer and are physically separated from each other. The device further includes a first and a second heterojunction regions within the heterojunction, each being respectively defined between one of the first and second electrodes and one of the other electrodes connected to the other type semiconductor layer. The first and second heterojunction regions are alternatively driven for emitting lights in the time domain.
21Light Emitting Device7,474,2872009/01/06IOTSENA light emitting device includes a time delay mechanism in electrical connection with a power source for time shifting at least a portion of a power signal outputted by the power source and a plurality of light emitting units formed by at least a light emitting diode (LED)structure, each light emitting unit being driven alternately and sequentially using the power source and the time delay mechanism.
22Meander feed structure antenna systems and methods7,286,0902007/10/23COMA transmitting and receiving system including an antenna element having first and second current paths, and a meander feed line connected to said first and second current paths, the meander feed line including a radiating portion parallel to the first current path, wherein a current in the radiating portion is in a direction opposite of a current in the first current path, and wherein a current in the second current path is in a direction the same as the current in said radiating portion.
23IC packages with internal heat dissipation structures8,031,4842011/10/04ICSAn IC package includes a substrate and a plurality of thermal dissipating vias perforating the substrate. The substrate includes a power plane, a ground plane, and a dielectric layer disposed between the power plane and the ground plane. The power plane includes a power region and a non-power region isolated from each other. The thermal dissipating vias are connected to the non-power regions of the power plane and to the ground plane.
24Heat Exchange Enhancement7,440,2802008/10/21IOTSENA heat exchange structure includes a plurality of elongated air ducts. The heat exchange structure has an exterior heat exchange surface and interior heat exchange surfaces, the interior surfaces being in the elongated air ducts. The heat exchange structure includes a plurality of heat generators that are distributed on the exterior heat exchange surface along an elongated direction of the air ducts, in which air flowing in the air duct is heated successively by heat from the heat generators, and air flow in the air duct is enhanced by buoyancy of heated air.
25Heat Exchange Enhancement7,593,2292009/09/22IOTSENA heat exchange structure includes elongated air ducts. Each air duct has a first opening and a second opening at two ends of the air duct to allow air to enter and exit the air duct, respectively. The heat exchange structure includes an exterior heat exchange surface and interior heat exchange surfaces, in which the exterior heat exchange surface is configured to receive thermal energy from heat generators that are mounted on the exterior heat exchange surface, and the exterior heat exchange surface dissipates a portion of the thermal energy received from the heat generators and transfers another portion of the thermal energy to the interior heat exchange surfaces. The interior heat exchange surfaces are in the elongated air ducts and configured to exchange thermal energy with air flowing in the air ducts, enhancing air flow in the air ducts by buoyancy of heated air.
26Efficient lighting7,586,2712009/09/08IOTSENA light source includes a plurality of lighting elements arranged to illuminate different regions of visual perception. Circuitry coupled to the light source is configured to supply power to a first subset of the lighting elements according to a first waveform and to a second subset of the lighting elements according to a second waveform out of phase with the first waveform.
27Efficient lighting7,294,9782007/11/13IOTSENA method for efficient lighting includes supplying power to a light source to control the intensity of light emitted from the light source according to an intensity waveform. The amplitude of the waveform over one period is at a high level for a first time interval and at or below a low level for a second time interval. The method includes selecting durations of the first time interval according to a first characteristic of human visual perception and selecting the second time interval according to a second characteristic of human visual perception.
28Systems and methods for using parasitic elements for controlling antenna resonances7,696,9282010/04/13COMSystems and methods for communicating over multiple frequency bands include a driven antenna element and a parasitic element communicatively coupled to the driven antenna element, the parasitic element including at least a first and a second conductive section. The parasitic element can include two or more conductive sections, and the sections can be coupled using a connector (e.g., switching element or trap). Further, some driven antenna elements may be associated with two or more parasitic elements.
29Monitoring devices and intrusion surveillance devices7,414,2362008/08/19IOTSENA security surveillance device that includes an electromagnetic wave sensor for sensing an electromagnetic wave of an external electromagnetic wave source and an anti-tampering arrangement. The anti-tampering arrangement includes a detection window forming a partition between the external electromagnetic wave source and the electromagnetic wave sensor, the detection window includes an outer corrugated surface facing the electromagnetic wave source; an optical arrangement for deploying an optical surveillance beam which is arranged to undergo multiple reflections at the outer corrugated surface of the detection window is provided and the surveillance beam loop is monitored by a control circuitry to monitor tampering.
30Miniature Balanced Antenna with Differential Feed7,453,4022008/11/18COMAn example antenna system includes a parasitic element and a symmetrical element fed by a balanced RF signal source. The fed element is operable to couple with the parasitic element, thereby causing the parasitic element to resonate at a first frequency band. Thus, the fed element is operable to act as a balanced capacitive feed for the parasitic element. Also, the parasitic element is symmetrical with respect to a polarity of the fed element.
31Semiconductor light emitting device7,829,9052010/11/09IOTSENA semiconductor light emitting device for emission of light having a predetermined bandwidth in a primary direction of emission includes a light generating region for the generation of light; and a 1-dimensional photonic crystal structure having a photonic bandgap covering at least a segment of said bandwidth. The 1-dimensional photonic crystal structure is located such that upon incident of light from the light generating region, light having a wavelength within the bandgap of the 1-dimensional photonic crystal structure is reflected in the primary direction of emission.
32Backlight device and liquid crystal display incorporating the backlight device8,228,2722012/07/24IOTSENA backlight device for providing backlighting to a liquid crystal display panel displaying a video image comprising a plurality of light emitting devices for providing backlighting to a liquid crystal display panel, a controller unit for receiving a video image and dividing the video image into a plurality of sub-images wherein each sub-image corresponds to at least one light emitting device, and for generating driving signals of each light emitting device according to grayscale level characteristics of at least one sub-image.
33Configurable SIMD processor instruction specifying index to LUT storing information for different operation and memory location for each processing unit7,441,0992008/10/21ICSMethods and apparatuses for processing a Configurable Single-Instruction-Multiple-Data (CSIMD) instruction are disclosed. In the method, a lookup table (LUT) storing information is provided to support random access of memory locations associated with a plurality of processing elements (PEs) and to perform instruction variances by the PEs. A CSIMD instruction is received, comprising a command and an index to the lookup table (LUT), to be executed by the PEs. The command of the received CSIMD instruction is executed in parallel differently by the PEs using the LUT index to randomly access the memory locations.
34Multi Mode Antenna System7,616,1582009/11/10COMAn antenna system comprising a first antenna element, a second antenna element, the first and second elements defining at least in part a slot element, an active switching network in communication with one or both of the first and second antenna elements, the switching network operable to cause the antenna system to resonate in each of two modes: a first mode wherein the first element resonates at a first set of frequencies, and the first element and a second element resonate together at a second set of frequencies; and a second mode wherein the first element resonates at the first set of frequencies, and the slot element resonates at a third set of frequencies.
35Stacked Multi-Chip Package with EMI Shielding7,514,7742009/04/07ICSA stacked multi-chip package with an EMI shielded component has first and second substrates mounted together by a grid array of metallic connecting nodes, such as a solder Ball Grid Array. Each substrate has a conductive plane associated with it. An electronic component is mounted between the first and second substrates and is surrounded by a group of the metallic connecting nodes that are also electrically connected to the conductive planes of both substrates to form a conductive Faraday cage about the component.
36Data Communication Interface and Communication Devices Incorporating Same8,065,4622011/11/22COMA communication interface facilitates connection of a plurality of wireless USB compatible hosts with at least a WUSB device in a wireless USB environment at the same time. The communication interface includes a host detector that detects the presence of an active host or a plurality of active hosts, a host communicator for establishing wireless USB connection with a plurality of hosts, and a controller for causing time division multiplexed (TDM) data communication between active hosts and at least one device.
37Light emitting diode device, and manufacture and use thereof7,800,1222010/09/21IOTSENA light emitting diode device includes a multi-layer stack of materials including a p-layer, a n-layer, and a light generating region for emission of light in a primary emission direction towards one of the p- and n-layers; a substantially transparent layer located at or adjacent said one of the p- and n-layers, having a first surface facing said one of the p- and n-layers and an opposed second surface; and a reflective surface formed at or adjacent the second surface of the transparent layer for directing at least a portion of the emitted light in a direction away from the primary emission direction so as to enhance light emission from a side of the light emitting diode device.
38Methods of making an electronic component package and semiconductor chip packages8,241,9662012/08/14ICSAn electronic component package having an EMI shielded space is disclosed. The package comprises a substrate having an electronic component located on its surface and a conductive enclosure having a top and downwardly extending sides enclosing the component and defining a shielded space. A vent opening is provided through the substrate and is located in the shielded space for venting the shielded space. A second vent opening may be provided in the top of the conductive enclosure.
39Antenna systems with ground plane extensions and method for use thereof7,535,4312009/05/19COMAn antenna system comprising a ground plane structure on a substrate, an antenna space on the substrate adjacent to the ground plane structure, the antenna space including an ungrounded antenna therein with an associated first resonant length, an extension of the ground plane projecting into the antenna space, the ground plane extension defining a second resonant length that includes at least part of its own length and at least part of a length of the ground plane structure.
40Systems and methods using ground plane filters for device isolation7,629,9302009/12/08COMA system for reducing unwanted signals comprises a ground plane, a first active component disposed so as to cause signals in the ground plane, a second active component disposed so as to cause signals in the ground plane, wherein the ground plane provides a path for the signals from the first active component to affect the second active component and for the signals from the second active component to affect the first active component, and a filter element configured as a pattern in the ground plane receiving and attenuating the signals from each of the first and second active components.
41High Speed Context Memory Implementation for H.2647,443,3182008/10/28CCTDisclosed is a context modeller (103) used in decoding data (202) encoded using Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding, said context modeler (103) comprising a Read Only Memory (1001) for storing uninitialized context model values, said uninitialized context model values being stored in the Read Only Memory (1001) in a manner that enables a plurality of uninitialized context model values to be read from the Read Only Memory (1001) in a single clock cycle, an Arithmetic Logic Module (1003) comprising a plurality of parallel processing paths (2202-2207), each said processing path comprising a plurality of pipeline stages, a Random Access Memory (1005) and a memory controller (1008) for determining, using the Arithmetic Logic Module (1005) operating on said plurality of uninitialized context model values read from the Read Only Memory (1001) in each clock cycle, initialized context model values for storage in the Random Access Memory (1001) based upon header information in said incoming encoded data (202).
42LED Assembly and use thereof7,482,6322009/01/27IOTSENA light emitting diode (LED) assembly includes a first substrate carrying a first plurality of LEDs mounted thereon and a second substrate spaced apart from the first substrate. The second substrate carries a second plurality of LEDs thereon. The first and second substrates are thermally connected for thermal distribution between the substrates.
43Low cost multi-beam, multi-band and multi-diversity antenna systems and methods for wireless communications7,525,5042009/04/28COMSystems and methods for employing switched phase shifters and a feed network to provide a low cost multiple beam antenna system for wireless communications. The present systems and methods may also facilitate multi-band communications and employ multi-diversity. The present systems and methods allow communication systems to achieve enhanced performance for communication or other services such as location tracking. The present systems and methods may employ switched phase shifters, multiple diversity antennas and/or a feed network having a multi-layer construction to provide an antenna system with low losses, low external component count and/or which is thin and compact.
44Optical tilt monitoring apparatus7,733,5062010/06/08IOTSENAn optical arrangement includes a position sensitive optical detector, a collimated optical source, and a processor configured to monitor the inclination of an object. The collimated optical source is configured to transmit a collimated beam towards the object. The position sensitive optical detector is configured to detect the specific location of incidence of an optical signal received from the object, and the processor is configured to generate information relating to the inclination of the object from processing optical signals received at the position sensitive optical detector.
45Light-emitting devices and lens therefor7,688,5262010/03/30IOTSENA light-emitting assembly comprising a lens, a first optical source, a second optical source and a third optical source, wherein the lens is disposed forward of said first, second and third optical sources; the third optical source is intermediate the first and second optical sources; and the lens and the first, second and third optical sources are arranged so that light emitted from the first and second optical sources merges at the third optical source after undergoing internal reflection at the lens.
46Light-emitting devices and lens therefor7,607,7922009/10/27IOTSENA light-emitting assembly for conditioning the light output of at least one light-emitting source for light guide coupling, comprising a lens and at least one light-emitting source, the light-emitting source having an optical output axis and the lens comprising a beam diverging portion for diverging or spreading light about the output axis, wherein the beam diverging portion of the lens is along the optical output axis and forward of the light-emitting source, and at least one beam converging portion for converging or compressing light away from the optical axis is adjacent the beam diverging portion.
47Remote Control Lighting Assembly And Use Thereof8,013,3472011/09/06IOTSENA remote-controllable lighting device comprising a first substrate and an adjacent second substrate maintained in a spaced apart relationship to allow airflow therebetween and at least partly overlapping each other, at least the second substrates carrying thereon at least one emission sources, the first substrate being located towards a proximal end of the device and the second substrate being located towards a distal end of the device; said first substrate being arranged so as to allow light generated by the at least one located second light emission source to pass thereby in a direction defining a primary light emission direction and said first light emission source located so as to emit light in said primary light emission direction; said first and second substrate being in thermal communication so as to allow heat generated by the at least one light emission sources to flow between the substrates so as to provide thermal distribution between the substrates, the first and second substrate being formed of a thermally conductive material suitable for convection of the generated heat therefrom; a signal detector for receiving a wirelessly transmitted control signal from a remote control device; said signal receiver being located proximal of the first substrate in the primary light emission direction; and a controller in communication with said signal detector and the light emission sources and for controlling at least one characteristic of at least one light emission source responsive to said control signal.
48Backlighting apparatus and manufacturing process7,607,7902009/10/27IOTSENApparatuses for backlighting and manufacturing processes thereof are disclosed. There is provided a backlight module. The backlight module comprises a double-sided circuit board with thermal conducting material as one of the core layers; a plurality of light source components mounted on the first surface of the circuit board; and, a plurality of electronic components mounted on the second surface of the circuit board. The thermal conducting core layer discharges heat generated by the light source components. The circuit board has at least one window on the surface layer at the second surface to expose the thermal conducting core layer for thermal dissipation. As such, the component heights on the illuminating side of the circuit board are unified, and the reflector can be made as a smooth planar sheet to provide a more uniform backlight illumination compared to a single-side circuit board design. Further, such an arrangement reduces the complexity in manufacturing the reflector and hence the cost thereof.
49Light emitting assembly with heat dissipation structure8,042,9782011/10/25IOTSENA assembly includes at least a first and a second light emitting source for emission of light, and an air passage between the first and second light emitting sources to allow air flow therethrough for dissipation of heats generated by the light emitting sources.
50Optical Displacement Sensor and Distance Measuring Apparatus7,684,0532010/03/23IOTSENAn optical displacement sensor for measuring distance or surface displacement of an object by surface profile scanning includes an optical source, a first optical detector and a second optical detector. The optical source is located intermediate the first and second optical detectors. The first and second optical detectors are arranged to collect light emitted by the optical source when scattered by and/or reflected from the object.
51Light Emitting Diode Device, Method of Fabrication and use thereof7,847,3062010/12/07IOTSENA light emitting diode device which, in use, has its light emitting region occupying a plane substantially perpendicular to a plane occupied by the surface on which the device is mounted. The primary light emission directions of the light emitting region are parallel to the surface on which the device is mounted. The device may have both its p-type and n-type semiconductor layers passivated by a layer or layers of light transmissive materials. There is a method for fabricating and mounting such a device. A plurality of the light emitting diode devices can be used in a lighting assembly for providing a plurality of independently controllable lit regions.
52Semiconductor device having current spreading layer7,834,3732010/11/16IOTSENA semiconductor device has a current spreading layer between a semiconductor material and an electrode for connecting the semiconductor material to an electrical power supply. The current spreading layer has two or more sub-layers of a first conductive material with patterned regions of a second conductive material distributed between the sub-layers for spreading an electrical current passing between the electrode and the semiconductor material. The second material has an ohmic resistance lower than the first material.
53Optical sensing methods and apparatus7,671,9722010/03/02IOTSENA method of sensing movement or proximity of objects by optical reflection is provided. The method includes the steps of transmitting a train of optical pulses towards a destination, sensing optical pulses reflected from the destination, and sensing and evaluating movement or proximity characteristics of objects at the destination with reference to variation in pulse width between transmitted and reflected optical pulses.
54Total internal reflection side emitting coupling device7,841,7392010/11/30IOTSENThe present invention discloses a coupling lens system, which comprises a collimation lens for collimating light from light source to a first direction; a first lens surface for total internal reflecting light from light source to the first direction; and a second lens surface for total internal reflecting light from the first direction to a second direction. Wherein an angle between the first direction and the second direction can be larger than, smaller than or equal to 90 degrees, and preferably between 70 to 100 degrees. Additionally, the system further comprises at least one extra surface parallel to the second lens surface, wherein at least one extra surface has a length L and is parallel to each other. At the same time, each surface and another surface has a distance D in between, and the length L can be equaled to or larger than the distance D according to purposes and further modifies a shape of the coupling lens system.
55Method and apparatus for debinarization of digital video data during decoding7,518,5362009/04/14CCTA debinarizer and a hardware-based method for debinarizing a binary bit stream into symbols comprising predefined binary sequences are disclosed in which predefined binary sequences and their corresponding symbols are represented as tree structures. A binary sequence is debinarized by traversing one of the tree structures to determine a corresponding symbol. Similar tree structures may be combined to form a single tree structure. The tree structures may be implemented as a finite state machine.
56Light guiding strip and backlight module and display using the same7,828,4722010/11/09IOTSENA light guiding strip and a backlight module and display using the same are provided. The light guiding strip of the present invention includes a plurality of light reflecting surfaces and a plurality of light emergent surfaces. Each of the light reflecting surfaces has a light diffusion pattern. The light guiding strip of the present invention has the advantages of light weight, wide LED pitch, low cost, thickness and so on.
57Ultra-wideband/dualband broadside-coupled coplanar stripline balun7,772,9412010/08/10COMA balun comprises at least two asymmetric coplanar striplines, a first of the striplines coupled to a signal input, and a second of the striplines coupled to a signal output, the at least two asymmetric coplanar striplines configured in a Marchand architecture to receive an unbalanced signal and to output a balanced signal.
58Recordable electrical memory7,813,1582010/10/12IOTSENA memory device includes memory cells each having a recordable layer between two metal layers, each memory cell being constructed and designed to change from a first state to a second state upon application of an initialization signal, and change from the second state to a third state upon application of a write signal. For a voltage within a specified range that is applied across the two metal layers, the memory cell has a lower resistance in the first state than in the second state, and has a higher resistance in the second state than in the third state.
59Recordable electrical memory7,859,8832010/12/28IOTSENA memory device includes a plurality of memory cells each including a recordable layer between two metal layers, the recordable layer including a first sub-cell and a second sub-cell. Each memory cell is constructed and designed to change from an as-deposited state to an initialized state upon application of an initialization signal, from the initialized state to a first inscribed state upon application of a first write signal, and from the initialized state to a second inscribed state upon application of a second write signal. The memory cell has a resistor-like current-voltage (I-V) characteristic when in the as-deposited state, a diode-like I-V characteristic when in the initialized state, and resistor-like I-V characteristics when in the first and second inscribed states for voltages within a predetermined range.
60Light emitter assembly7,701,0552010/04/20IOTSENA plurality of disc-shaped substrates carry light emitters and are axially stacked, spaced apart, in a metal housing to dissipate the heat produced by the light emitters. The housing comprises mutually connected elongate planar ribs that abut the light emitters or substrates for thermally connecting the light emitters to the housing. The ribs have shoulders. The substrates are received between the ribs and abut the shoulders. The shoulders are positioned proximate each light emitter in intimate contact with the substrate for efficient heat dissipation.
61Method of super flat chemical mechanical polishing technology and semiconductor elements produced thereof8,415,1862013/04/09IOTSENThe present invention provides a method of super flat chemical mechanical polishing (SF-CMP) technology, which is a method characterized in replacing laser lift-off in a semiconductor fabricating process. SF-CMP has a main step of planting a plurality of polishing stop points before polishing the surface, which is characterized by hardness of the polishing stop points material being larger than hardness of the surface material. Therefore, the present method can achieve super flat polishing surface without removing polishing stop points.
62Methods and apparatus for backlight calibration8,044,8992011/10/25IOTSENMethods and apparatuses for backlight calibration are described. The apparatus 100 comprises a backlight unit 102 comprising a plurality of light sources 120, at least one photo-sensor 103 adapted to measure the light emitted by the backlight unit 102, a photo-sensor controller 112 coupled to the photo-sensor 103 for controlling the photo-sensor(s) 103, a backlight driving circuit 104 coupled to the light sources 120 for providing individual driving on each light source, a signal generator 114 coupled to the photo-sensor controller 112 and the backlight driving circuit 104 for controlling the operation timing of photo-sensors 103 and each of the light source 120 such that lighting conditions from each of the light source can be acquired, and a processing unit 111 coupled to the photo-sensor 103 and the backlight driving circuit 104 for analyzing the measurement data from the photo-sensors 103 and providing an adjustment signal to the backlight driving circuit 104 to achieve uniform lighting conditions of the backlight unit 102. Also described is a method comprising the steps of providing saved settings for backlight driver, providing a modified timing sequence to backlight driver and photo sensor 202, measuring light conditions of each individual light source or each individual group of light sources in backlight unit 203, comparing measurement data with predefined light conditions 205, calculating the adjustment required on backlight drivel to achieve desired light conditions, and saving calculated adjustment as new settings for backlight driver 207.
63Method of displaying a low dynamic range image in a high dynamic range8,207,9312012/06/26IOTSENA method of increasing the dynamic range of an image comprising a plurality of pixels each having a luminance value within a first luminance dynamic range. The method includes determining a background luminance value for each pixel of the image and determining a minimum and a maximum of the background luminance values. A conversion factor is then determined for each pixel of the image based on the minimum and maximum of the background luminance values. The image id converted from the first luminance dynamic range to a second luminance dynamic range by multiplying the luminance value of each pixel of the image by its conversion factor.
64Miniaturized orthogonal antenna system7,812,7832010/10/12COMA system for providing multiple antenna patterns comprises a first antenna element, a second antenna element, wherein the first and second antenna elements are coplanar and arranged orthogonally with respect to each other in the plane, and a feed circuit in communication with a signal feed line alternately connecting the signal feed line to each of the first and second antenna elements.
65Image display device and method8,243,0072012/08/14IOTSENAn image display device is presented to solve problems of high power consumption, insufficient contrast, image flicker, and distortion of image display devices. The image display device includes an image display management module which includes a backlight control unit. The backlight control unit includes an image brightness analyzer, generating a brightness value according to an input image data; a weight generator, generating a weight according to the brightness value; an image variation analyzer, analyzing the input image data to generate an image variance; and a backlight factor generator, coupled to the weight generator and the image variation analyzer to generate a backlight adjusting signal according to the weight and the image variance. By the backlight adjusting signal, the image display device achieves the power-saving and contrast enhancement effects.
66Lighting device7,663,2292010/02/16IOTSENA lighting device contains a plurality of light emitting sources mounted on a thermally conductive housing and electrically connected to a circuit board. The housing includes a base portion which is spaced apart from the circuit board, and an intermediate heat dissipation structure which is disposed between the circuit board and the base portion of the housing, for promoting cooling by convection. The plurality of light emitting sources are in thermal communication with the intermediate heat dissipation structure.
67Actuator for linear motion and tilting motion7,725,0142010/05/25IOTSENThere is provided an actuator used in an optical system comprising a housing, a carrier disposed at least partly inside the housing, and a plurality of linear motion transducers coupled to the carrier and substantially evenly spaced around the carrier within the housing. Each linear motion transducer is able to produce linear motion when energized displacing the carrier relative to the housing to produce linear motion, tilting motion, or both of the carrier.
68Feedback Controller having Multiple Feedback Paths7,948,2242011/05/24ICSA feedback controller comprises first and second feedback circuits. The first feedback circuit is connected between an input node and an output node and has an error node. The first feedback circuit comprising a feedback amplifier for comparing a feedback signal to a reference signal and providing an error signal, and a comparator for comparing the error signal to a second reference signal and providing an output signal. The second feedback circuit is connected between the input node and the error node and comprises a current source coupled to the error node and a controller coupled to the input node for controlling the current source in response to a value of the feedback signal being above or below a threshold value.
69Auto White Balancing by Modified Grey World and Geometric Distortion Measurement7,800,7832010/09/21AIBDA method, apparatus and computer program product for correcting white balance in a digital image are described. The method comprises determining a number of grey blocks in the digital image (s102), each block comprising a subset of pixels of the image, and if the number of grey blocks is less than a predetermined value, scaling one or more color channels of the digital image using a first gain value to generate a first intermediate image (s201A) and scaling one or more color channels of the digital image using a second gain value to generate a second intermediate image (s201B). A number of grey blocks in each of the first and second intermediate images (s202A, s202B) is determined and the gain value resulting in the intermediate image having a greater number of grey blocks is set as the reference gain value (s203). A grey world process is performed on the intermediate image having a greater number of grey blocks (s205). Also described are a method, apparatus and computer program product for computing gain values for correcting a white balance of a digital image. The method comprises receiving an image divided into a number of blocks, removing the three most frequently occurring colors from the image (s204), and scaling one or more color channels of the image by respective reference gain values derived by a grey world process performed on the image.
70Low Complexity Color De-noising Filter7,903,9002011/03/08AIBDMethods and apparatuses for color denoising are described. There is provided an image processing method. The method comprises the steps of retrieving chrominance level for a plurality of pixels in a predetermined configuration; computing a weight for each pixel; applying the weight to the chrominance level for each the pixel; summing the weighted chrominance level to output a chrominance level for a center pixel at the center of said predetermined configuration; and repeating the above steps for every pixel per image. The color noise can be reduced while preserving the edge without any edge detection.
71Method of simultaneously providing data to two or more devices on the same network8,051,1452011/11/01AIBDA method of providing data to two client devices on a first network having a shared cache from a server device on a second network. An instance of substantially simultaneous requests for data being made to a server from two client devices on a same network is identified. In response to a first request for the data being received at a first point in time a first one of the two client devices is served with the requested data from the server such that the data is stored in the shared cache. The second one of the two client devices is directed to make a second request for the data at a second point in time, later than the first point in time, so that the requested data is available in the stored cache.
72Low-Voltage Oscillator with Capacitor-Ratio Selectable Duty Cycle7,705,6852010/04/27ICSAn oscillator operates at a very low voltage yet has a duty cycle that is set by a ratio of capacitors that are charged and discharged. Sub-threshold p-channel transistors conduct sub-threshold currents below the normal threshold voltage, and drive set and reset inputs of a set-reset S-R latch. The S-R latch drives the oscillator outputs. The oscillator outputs feed back to charging p-channel transistors that charge one plate of the capacitors. During half of the cycle, the charging p-channel transistor is off, allowing one plate of the capacitors to discharge through an n-channel discharge transistor. After a period of discharge determined by the capacitance of the capacitor, the gate of a sub-threshold p-channel transistor falls enough for sub-threshold current to flow, triggering the set or reset input of the S-R latch. Since sub-threshold currents are needed to toggle the S-R latch, the oscillator begins to oscillate below the threshold voltage.
73Optoelectronic distance sensor7,701,5672010/04/20IOTSENAn optoelectronic distance sensor with slant component 200 having a spacer 202 bonded on a mother substrate 201 is disclosed. The spacer 202 has slant surface for receiving one or more optoelectronic components 204, such as an optical sensor, that are mounted at an angle to the mother substrate 201. Such electronic components 204 are bonded on a daughter substrate 203 which attaches to the spacer 202 at the slant surface. The optoelectronic assembly 200 can be manufactured at chip-level, including by one ore more of exemplary methods disclosed herein.
74Optical element and backlight module having the same7,922,3672011/04/12IOTSENAn optical element, a light-emitting component and a direct-lit backlight module having the optical element are provided. The optical element includes a bottom surface, at least one side refractive surface for refracting one part of a light beam incident from the bottom surface, and an upper refractive surface for refracting the other part of the light beam incident from the bottom surface. A maximum included angle formed between the light beam incident from the bottom surface and to be irradiated onto the side refractive surface and the bottom surface is a first angle (α). An included angle formed between a light beam coming out from at least one side refractive surface and the bottom surface is smaller than or equal to the first angle. A maximum included angle formed between the light beam incident from the bottom surface and to be irradiated onto the upper refractive surface and a central axis of the optical element is a second angle (β). An included angle formed between the light beam coming out from the upper refractive surface and the central axis of the optical element is greater than or equal to the second angle.
75Method and apparatus for identification of wheels of a vehicle and a vehicle comprising same7,860,6342010/12/28ICSA method of determining the location information of a plurality of wheels mounted on a vehicle by obtaining a relationship between the lateral location of a wheel and the polarity of a transverse acceleration transmitted by an accelerometer of a wheel in response to a lateral turn of the vehicle in a direction of a lateral side of the vehicle and determining the lateral location of a wheel with reference to the polarity of the transverse acceleration signal transmitted by the accelerometer of the wheel upon the vehicle undergoing a lateral turn.
76Gain Control Circuit7,659,7802010/02/09ICSA gain control circuit including a resistor with a first terminal and a second terminal; an operational amplifier with an inverting terminal thereof electrically coupled to said first terminal of said resistor; a non-inverting terminal thereof; and an output terminal thereof; an amplifier circuit for transforming the voltage change of said operational amplifier output into a substantially exponential current change; wherein the output of said amplifier circuit is electrically coupled to said inverting terminal of said operational amplifier. The above described gain control circuit is able to perform wide bandwidth input signal buffering with linearity under low voltage and low power conditions. The circuit also offers low output impedances without the need of additional buffers and hence minimizing circuit size and manufacturing costs.
77Low-Voltage Synchronous Oscillator for DC-DC Converter7,656,2402010/02/02ICSSystems and methods which provide an oscillator circuit outputting non-overlapping trigger signals throughout a range of operating voltages using a reset-set (RS) flip-flop type circuit configuration are shown. Embodiments utilize output driver buffers internal to the RS flip-flop circuit configuration to provide oscillator feedback delay. Feedback control circuitry may be implemented to ensure that the delay associated with any one driver buffer does not solely provide the feedback delay. Embodiments further implement input delay circuitry adapted to maintain a relatively constant reset and set input feedback delay ratio throughout a large range of operating conditions.
78Fuse Cell and Method for Programming the Same7,538,5972009/05/26ICSThe fuse cell architecture 371 for the presently claimed invention employs a multiple fuse structure 301, 302 architecture in lieu of a single fuse structure. As such, the terminals of these fuse structures that couple to other on-chip devices are always at ground potential throughout the application of programming voltage to the fuse pads 311. This approach overcomes previous single fuse problems owing to the fact that a sufficiently high programming voltage can be applied to blow fuse structures with unexpectedly high resistance without damaging nearby on-chip devices. Furthermore, even if one of the fuse structures 301, 302 possessed an abnormally high resistance which would not be blown under typical conditions, the desired circuit trimming result can still be achieved owing to the blowing of the other fuse structure in the fuse cell 371.
79Zero-Delay Buffer with Common-Mode Equalizer for Input and Feedback Differential Clocks into a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)7,535,2722009/05/19ICSA zero-delay clock generator has a phase-locked loop (PLL) that generates a feedback clock and receives a reference clocks. All clocks are differential and have a common-mode voltage. The common-mode voltage of an externally-generated reference clock can vary from the common-mode voltage of the internally-generated feedback clock. Differences in common-mode voltage of the reference clock and feedback clock cause delay variations resulting in static phase offsets of generated clocks. A common-mode sense and equalizer senses the common-mode voltages of the buffered reference and feedback clocks, and generates control voltages. The control voltages adjust the common-mode voltage and delay of differential buffers that receive the reference and feedback clocks. The control voltages adjust the differential buffers to match the common-mode voltages of the buffered reference and feedback clocks. The buffered clocks are then applied to a phase and frequency detector of the PLL.
80Method for enhancing an image displayed on an LCD device8,400,3852013/03/19IOTSENA method and apparatus for image enhancement in a display illuminated by a lighting device. Enhancement is via use of a non-linear mapping function. An illumination level for the lighting device is determined and used with the mapping function to find a compensation factor for each pixel of the image. The brightness property of each pixel is adjusted by its compensation factor.
81Illumination module, and a display and general lighting apparatus using the same7,766,5332010/08/03IOTSENThe present invention provides an illumination module, and a display and a general lighting apparatus using the same. Said illumination module includes a plurality of light guiding strips arranged in juxtaposition with a predefined distance; a plurality of light sources, disposed on at least one end of said light guiding strips respectively for providing the light into said light guiding strips; and a plurality of light reflecting units, disposed between said light guiding strips for reflecting the light from said light guiding strips. The light reflecting units according to the present invention can guide the light from the sides of light guiding strips or other light not toward the right side of the illumination module back to the right side of the illumination module, and thus improving the light output efficiency and uniformity.
82Time division synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing supporting frequency division multiple access8,000,3982011/08/16COMA method of time domain synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (TDS-OFDM) communication, including the steps of: preparing OFDM-body; generating pseudo random (PN) sequence as a training signal; manipulating the PN sequence to concentrate the energy distribution thereof to the same bandwidth of sub-carriers of the OFDM-body; offsetting the manipulated PN sequence to align with frequency spectrum of the sub-carriers; and inserting the offset PN sequence as prefix of a TDS-OFDM data frame. The manipulating step may include the step of repeating the PN sequence by N times, wherein the spectrum of the repeated PN sequence concentrates on discrete bundles of sub-carriers, i.e., on one sub-carrier every N sub-carriers or M adjacent sub-carriers every MN sub-carriers, where M is an integer determined by the time duration ratio of the OFDM body and prefix. Alternatively, the manipulating step may include the step of expanding the PN sequence by N times, wherein the spectrum of the expanded PN sequence concentrates on a block of continual adjacent sub-carriers, the bandwidth of the PN sequence is 1/N of the whole bandwidth.
83Systems and methods for sampling frequency offset estimation8,085,8602011/12/27COMA method comprises receiving a transmission including at least two Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbols, estimating a sampling frequency offset associated with the OFDM symbols at least in part by employing a term representing a density of pilots in the OFDM symbols, and compensating for the sampling frequency offset using the estimated sampling frequency offset.
84Method for motion compensation8,090,0312012/01/03AIBDA method for use in video compression is disclosed. In particular, the claimed invention relates to a method of more efficient fractional-pixel interpolation in two steps by a fixed filter (240) and an adaptive filter (250) for fractional-pixel motion compensation.
85Fabrication of recordable electrical memory7,811,8802010/10/12IOTSENA memory cell of a memory device is fabricated by forming a first electrode on a substrate, positioning a photo mask at a first position relative to the substrate, and forming a first material layer on the first electrode based on a pattern on the photo mask. The photo mask is positioned at a second position relative to the substrate, and a second material layer is formed above the first material layer based on the pattern on the photo mask, the second material layer being offset from the first material layer so that a first sub-cell of the memory cell includes the first material layer and not the second material layer, and a second sub-cell of the memory cell includes both the first and second material layers. A second electrode is formed above the first and second material layers.
86Meander feed structure antenna systems and methods7,525,4882009/04/28COMA transmitting and receiving system including an antenna element having first and second current paths, and a meander feed line connected to said first and second current paths, the meander feed line including a radiating portion parallel to the first current path, wherein a current in the radiating portion is in a direction opposite of a current in the first current path, and wherein a current in the second current path is in a direction the same as the current in said radiating portion.
87Concurrent IGRS-UPnP7,962,5982011/06/14CCTSystems, apparatuses and methods for processing a concurrent IGRS-UPnP architecture for both IGRS and UPnP standards conformance, and to be used for consumer electronics device interoperability.
88Pulse-laser bonding method for through-silicon-via based stacking of electronic components8,138,5772012/03/20ICSThere is described a method of forming a through-silicon-via to form an interconnect between two stacked semiconductor components using pulsed laser energy. A hole is formed in each component, and each hole is filled with a plug formed of a first metal. One component is then stacked on another component such that the holes are in alignment, and a pulse of laser energy is applied to form a bond between the metal plugs.
89Method and device for order-16 integer transform from order-8 integer cosine transform8,228,9832012/07/24AIBDThe invention is used in video coding. Systems, apparatuses and methods for processing an order-16 integer transform from an order-8 transform are provided. The order-16 transform method involves expanding an order-8 transform by generating an order-16 integer matrix and a scaling matrix.
90Vertical light emitting diode and method of making a vertical light emitting diode7,846,7532010/12/07IOTSENA vertical gallium-nitrate-based LED and method of making a vertical gallium-nitrate-based LED using a stop layer is provided. Embodiments of the present invention use mechanical thinning and a plurality of superhard stop points to remove epitaxial layers with a high level of certainty. According one embodiment, the method of making a vertical LED includes forming a plurality of layers on a sapphire substrate, forming a plurality of stop points in the plurality of layers, removing the sapphire substrate and part of a u-GaN layer using mechanical thinning, wherein the mechanical thinning stops at an end of the plurality of stop points, selectively etching the u-GaN layer and exposing at least a part of the highly doped stop layer, and forming an n-electrode on the highly doped stop layer.
91Alumina substrate and method of making an alumina substrate8,008,6822011/08/30IOTSENAn alumina substrate and method of making an alumina substrate using oxidation is provided. Generally, photoresist masks are used to protect selected areas of an aluminum layer. The unprotected or exposed areas of the aluminum layer are then oxidized during a photolithography process. The protected, unexposed areas of the aluminum layer retain their conductive properties while the oxidized areas are converted to alumina, or aluminum oxide, which is non-conductive. Accordingly, an alumina substrate having conductive areas of aluminum is formed. In one embodiment, the alumina substrate includes an alumina layer, one or more aluminum vias formed within the alumina layer, each of the one or more aluminum vias extending between the bottom of the alumina layer and the top of the alumina layer, wherein the one or more aluminum vias are integrally formed within the alumina layer.
92Lens actuation device, optical system and camera7,889,4452011/02/15IOTSENA lens actuation device for an optical system includes a housing, a carrier at least partially installed in the housing, and a plurality of transducers arranged around the carrier in the housing. All the transducers are coupled with the mount, and at least one transducer includes at least one magnet and at least one coil. At least one transducer includes at least one yoke. All the transducers when powered on may generate independent or consistent movement to cause the mount to make linear movement, rotation, or both relative to the housing. An optical system adopting the lens actuation device and a camera using the same are also presented. The device of the present invention uses the transducers to drive the carrier, such that the lens set is driven to make linear movement, rotation, or both, thereby achieving the flexible manipulation of the lens.
93Piezoelectric module for energy harvesting, such as in a tire pressure monitoring system8,011,2372011/09/06ICSSubject matter disclosed herein may relate to energy harvesting piezoelectric modules as may be used, for example, in power supplies for tire pressure monitoring systems.
94Device and method for participating in a peer-to-peer network8,249,6382012/08/21AIBDA device for participating in a distributed peer-to-peer communications network has a distributed network application that includes a capability-routing entity having capability information for a group of associated peers participating in the network. A method for establishing peer-to-peer communication in the network including determining which of the group of associated peers can fulfil the requested connection based in the capability information and referring the request to the peer that can fulfil the connection.
95Heat-Dissipating Reflector for Lighting Device7,891,8422011/02/22IOTSENA heat-dissipating reflector for a lighting device having a reflecting surface for reflecting light from a light emitting source of the lighting device, and a plurality of ventilation openings formed through the reflecting surface for dissipating heat generated by the light emitting source.
96Multi-chip Package7,832,2782010/11/16ICSSubject matter disclosed herein may relate to packaging for multi-chip semiconductor devices as may be used, for example, in tire pressure monitoring systems.
97Semiconductor wafers and semiconductor devices with polishing stops and method of making the same8,395,1682013/03/12IOTSENSemiconductor wafers, semiconductor devices, and methods of making semiconductor wafers and devices are provided. Embodiments of the present invention are especially suitable for use with substrate substitution applications, such in the case of fabricating vertical LED. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method of making a semiconductor device, the method comprising providing a substrate; forming a plurality of polishing stops on the substrate; growing one or more buffer layers on the substrate; growing one or more epitaxial layers on the one or more buffer layers; and applying one or more metal layers to the one or more epitaxial layers. Additionally, the steps of affixing a second substrate to the one or more metal layers and removing the base substrate using a mechanical thinning process may be performed.
98Multi-drive Mechanism Lens Actuator8,249,4402012/08/21IOTSENSubject matter disclosed herein may relate to lens actuators used, for example, in auto-focus and/or vibration compensation systems of digital cameras.
99LCD backlight dimming, LCD/image signal compensation and method of controlling an LCD display8,514,1662013/08/20IOTSENA method of reducing power consumption in a liquid crystal display illuminated by a backlight device includes dimming the backlight and adjusting the intensity of the image to compensate for the dimmed backlight. A dimming factor for the backlight is based on a clipping point determining from the pixel intensity distribution of the image signal. The intensity of the image is adjusted based on the dimming factor, wherein a first tone mapping function is used to adjust pixel intensities below an intensity threshold and a second tone mapping function is used to adjust pixel intensities above the intensity threshold.
100Bonding Method for Through-Silicon-Via Based 3D Wafer Stacking8,030,2082011/10/04ICSThere is described a bonding method for through-silicon-via bonding of a wafer stack in which the wafers are formed with through-silicon-vias and lateral microchannels that are filled with solder. To fill the vias and channels the wafer stack is placed in a soldering chamber and molten solder is drawn through the vias and channels by vacuum. The wafers are held together by layers of adhesive during the assembly of the wafer stack. Means are provided for local reheating of the solder after it has cooled to soften the solder to enable it to be removed from the soldering chamber.
101Bonding Method for Through-Silicon-Via Based 3D Wafer Stacking7,683,4592010/03/23ICSThere is described a hybrid bonding method for through-silicon-via based wafer stacking. Patterned adhesive layers are provided to join together adjacent wafers in the stack, while solder bonding is used to electrically connect the vias. The adhesive layers are patterned to enable outgassing and to provide stress relief.
102Angular-domain channel model and channel estimation8,014,9812011/09/06COMA method of modeling wireless communication channels in angular domain is disclosed. The method includes considering radiation patterns 101, 102 of the transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna, wherein the radiation patterns are represented by antenna characteristics sampled at a plurality of angular directions. A method of channel estimation based on the method of modeling wireless communication channel in angular domain is also disclosed.
103Heat Exchange Enhancement7,651,2532010/01/26IOTSENA heat exchange structure includes elongated air ducts. Each air duct has a first opening and a second opening at two ends of the air duct to allow air to enter and exit the air duct, respectively. The heat exchange structure includes an exterior heat exchange surface and interior heat exchange surfaces, in which the exterior heat exchange surface is configured to receive thermal energy from heat generators that are mounted on the exterior heat exchange surface, and the exterior heat exchange surface dissipates a portion of the thermal energy received from the heat generators and transfers another portion of the thermal energy to the interior heat exchange surfaces. The interior heat exchange surfaces are in the elongated air ducts and configured to exchange thermal energy with air flowing in the air ducts, enhancing air flow in the air ducts by buoyancy of heated air.
104Heat Exchange Enhancement7,826,2142010/11/02IOTSENA heat exchange structure includes elongated air ducts. Each air duct has a first opening and a second opening at two ends of the air duct to allow air to enter and exit the air duct, respectively. The heat exchange structure includes an exterior heat exchange surface and interior heat exchange surfaces, in which the exterior heat exchange surface is configured to receive thermal energy from heat generators that are mounted on the exterior heat exchange surface, and the exterior heat exchange surface dissipates a portion of the thermal energy received from the heat generators and transfers another portion of the thermal energy to the interior heat exchange surfaces. The interior heat exchange surfaces are in the elongated air ducts and configured to exchange thermal energy with air flowing in the air ducts, enhancing air flow in the air ducts by buoyancy of heated air.
105Heat Exchange Enhancement7,800,8982010/09/21IOTSENA heat exchange structure includes a plurality of elongated air ducts. The heat exchange structure has an exterior heat exchange surface and interior heat exchange surfaces, the interior surfaces being in the elongated air ducts. The heat exchange structure includes a plurality of heat generators that are distributed on the exterior heat exchange surface along an elongated direction of the air ducts, in which air flowing in the air duct is heated successively by heat from the heat generators, and air flow in the air duct is enhanced by buoyancy of heated air.
106Semiconductor chip with through-silicon-via and sidewall pad8,674,4822014/03/18ICSSubject matter disclosed herein may relate to packaging for multi-chip semiconductor devices as may be used, for example, in flash memory devices. In an example embodiment, a semiconductor chip may comprise a through-silicon via and a sidewall pad.
107Enhanced channel simulator for efficient antenna evaluation7,941,3022011/05/10COMMethod and apparatus for channel simulation is disclosed. The claimed invention provides method and apparatus 1200 to simulate a propagation channel, particularly a multiple-input-multiple-input (MIMO) channel. The claimed invention further provides a method and apparatus for efficient optimization of antenna by the enhanced channel simulation. The claimed invention takes both antenna characteristics and channel characteristics as inputs, and output time-varying channel realizations to generate the system metrics as the optimization target for antenna under optimization. The claimed invention advantageous provides enhanced channel simulation to meet the accuracy requirement of antenna evaluation.
108Digital image enhancement8,311,3612012/11/13IOTSENEnhancement of an image includes adjusting its brightness and then adjusting the contrast of the brightness adjusted image. Adjusting the brightness uses an estimation of real world luminance. Contrast adjustment involves extracting background and contrast information, adjusting the contrast information by an adjustment factor based on the background information and combining the background corrected contrast information to obtain an output image.
109Light guiding strip and double-sided planar light apparatus7,703,9632010/04/27IOTSENA light guiding strip and a double-sided planar light apparatus are provided. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the double-sided planar light apparatus includes a plurality of light guiding strips, wherein the plurality of light guiding strips are positioned in a planar arrangement, each of the plurality of light guiding strips including a first plurality of light emitting surfaces disposed toward a first direction and a second plurality of light emitting surfaces disposed toward a second direction, each of the plurality of light guiding strips further including a first end and a second end configured to receive light, wherein the plurality of light guiding strips emit light from the first and second plurality of light emitting surfaces. Reflectors and light diffusion patterns on the light guiding strips provide control and independence over the two sides of the planar light apparatus.
110Method and apparatus of de-interlacing video8,165,2112012/04/24AIBDThe presently claimed invention adaptively selects a local de-interlacing method according to information from a compressed video bitstream. According to one embodiment, successive images from a video bitstream are first reconstructed. Syntax elements, selected from a macroblock type, a macroblock partition, a motion vector, a distance from a reference frame, the existence of non-zero transform coefficients and the distribution of transform coefficients, are then extracted from this bitstream. Based on the syntax elements, a de-interlacing algorithm is decided from an algorithm set for each image region in a video frame. Algorithms in the algorithm set include motion compensation, edge-based line averaging, and line averaging. Each image region is thereby interpolated using the de-interlacing algorithm and complementary motion compensation. The complementary motion compensation de-interlaces the image region using an inverse of motion vectors extracted from a bitstream clip representing neighboring frames.
111Systems and Method Employing Coupling Elements to Increase Antenna Isolation7,973,7182011/07/05COMAn antenna system comprises a first antenna element mutually coupled with a second antenna element, the mutual coupling between the first and second antenna elements causing a first current in the second antenna element, and a coupling element disposed at least partially between the first and second antenna elements, wherein the coupling element is mutually coupled to each of the first and second antenna elements, and wherein the coupling element is configured to induce a second current in the second antenna element that at least partially cancels the first current.
112Direction finding antenna systems and methods for use thereof7,924,2252011/04/12COMAn antenna system comprising a first antenna element, a second antenna element, and a parasitic element, wherein the parasitic element is arranged with regard to the first antenna element and the second antenna element such that a greatest difference in gain between respective antenna patterns of the first and second antenna elements occurs at a null of the pattern of the first antenna element.
113RF component with a superconducting area having higher current density than a non-superconducting area8,238,9892012/08/07COMA Radio Frequency (RF) component comprising a non-superconducting material, and a superconducting material, wherein the superconducting material is disposed in one or more areas of the RF component such that the areas with superconducting material conduct greater current density than do areas with the non-superconducting material.
114Low voltage high-output-driving CMOS voltage reference with temperature compensation7,705,6622010/04/27ICSA bandgap reference voltage generator has a first stage that generates a first current that is complementary-to-absolute-temperature (Ictat) and a second stage that generates a current that is proportional-to-absolute-temperature (Iptat). The Ictat and Iptat currents are both forced through a summing resistor to generate a voltage that is relatively independent of temperature, since the Ictat and Iptat currents cancel out each other's temperature dependencies. A PMOS output transistor drives current to an output load to maintain the load at the reference voltage. An op amp drives the gate of the PMOS output transistor and has inputs connected to emitters of PNP transistors in the second stage. A series of resistors generate the reference voltage between the PMOS output transistor and ground and drives bases of the PNP transistors and includes the summing resistor. Parasitic PNP transistors in an all-CMOS process are used. The generator operates with a 1-volt power supply.
115Low dropout voltage regulator with programmable on-chip output voltage for mixed signal embedded applications7,619,4022009/11/17ICSA programmable voltage generator has software-programmable registers that may be decoded to generate control bits that turn on select transistors that control a variable resistor network. An external power voltage is input to a regulator transistor, which has a channel resistance controlled by a gate voltage. The channel resistance of the regulator transistor produces a regulated voltage as an output. An op amp compares a reference voltage to a feedback voltage to generate the gate voltage. The feedback voltage is taken from a tap within the variable resistor network. The variable resistor network has select transistors that select one resistor between the regulated voltage and an upper node, and that select one resistor between a lower node and ground. Switches select a tap within a series of resistors between the upper and lower nodes. Y (fine) control bits select the tap while X (coarse) control bits enable select transistors.
116LED light shaping device and illumination system8,061,8572011/11/22IOTSENAn LED light shaping device and illumination system are provided. According to one embodiment, a light shaping lens is configured to shape light emitted from a light source and direct the light on a display panel for projection. The light shaping lens comprises a light input surface configured to receive light emitted from the light source a reflective surface configured to reflect at least part of the light received by the light source; and a light output surface having a first curvature in a first direction and a second curvature in a second direction, wherein the light output surface is configured to emit the light that is received by the light input surface and reflected by the reflective surface, and wherein the first curvature and the second curvature are configured to shape the light such that the emitted light has an oval cross section.
117Method of producing thin semiconductor structures7,985,9712011/07/26IOTSENA method of making a thin gallium-nitride (GaN)-based semiconductor structure is provided. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method includes the steps of providing a substrate; sequentially forming one or more semiconductor layers on the substrate; etching a pattern in the one or more semiconductor layers; depositing a dielectrics layer; forming a photoresist on a portion of the dielectrics layer, wherein the portion of the dielectrics layer is deposited on the one or more semiconductor layers; depositing a primer; removing the photoresist layer, wherein the primer on the photoresist is also removed; depositing a superhard material, wherein the superhard material forms in the pattern; and removing the substrate. Accordingly, the superhard material may be selectively deposited in only areas where the superhard material is desired. Vertical GaN-based light emitting devices may then be formed by cutting the semiconductor structure.
118Miniature actuator and Optical Apparatus7,791,8272010/09/07IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an actuator to adjust a position of a lens.
119Substrate warpage-reducing structure7,879,4382011/02/01ICSThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to methods to reduce warpage of a substrate.
120Multi-stage comparator with offset canceling capacitor across secondary differential inputs for high-speed low-gain compare and high-gain auto-zeroing7,764,2152010/07/27ICSAn Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has a Successive-Approximation-Register (SAR) driving a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that generates an analog voltage compared to an input voltage by a series of stages. The last stage feeds a compare signal to the SAR. Each stage has a dual-input differential amplifier that operates as a unity gain op amp during an auto-zeroing phase and as a high-speed low-gain amplifier during an amplifying phase. The dual-input differential amplifier has two pairs of differential inputs. A secondary pair has an offset-storing capacitor across it, and connects to the output pair through feedback switches during auto-zeroing. A primary pair connects to stage inputs through input switches during the amplifying phase. Since two pairs of differential inputs are provided to the dual-input differential amplifier, the offset capacitor is completely isolated from the input pair. The current sink in the dual-input differential amplifier is adjusted higher during the amplifying period.
121Current-Mode-Controlled Current Sensor Circuit for Power Switching Converter7,710,0942010/05/04ICSA power converter has a power transistor driving a power current through an inductor to provide a controlled power-supply voltage. The power transistor is on during a first state but off during a second state when a sink transistor reduces the power current through the inductor. Both voltage sensing of the power-supply voltage and current sensing at the power transistor provide feedback to control the amount of time that the first state is active, and thus control the power current. Current sensing is provided by a smaller minor transistor in parallel with the power transistor. The minor transistor turns on after the power transistor to reduce disturbance spikes. Switches connect sources of the power and mirror transistors to an amplifier that drives a sensing transistor. The sensing transistor generates a sensing voltage from the mirror transistor source. During the second state the amplifier's inputs are equalized to provide fast response.
122Miniature and multi-band RF coil design8,056,8192011/11/15COMA near field apparatus comprises a Radio Frequency (RF) coil including at least one of a shorting bridge from a first point to a second point along an electrical path of the RF coil and/or a discontinuity in the electrical path of the RF coil.
123Single-Power-Transistor Battery-Charging Circuit Using Voltage-Boosted Clock7,999,5122011/08/16ICSA charge/discharge protection circuit protects a battery from inadvertent shorting on a charger node that can connect to a charger or to a power supply of a portable electronic device. A single n-channel power transistor has a gate that controls a channel between the battery and the charger node. The gate is connected to the charger node by a gate-coupling transistor to turn off the power transistor, providing battery isolation. The gate is driven by a voltage-boosted clock through a switch activated by an enable signal. The enable signal also activates a grounding transistor to ground a gate of the gate-coupling transistor. A comparator compares voltages of the charger and battery nodes, and the compare output is latched to generate the enable signal. An inverse enable signal activates a second switch that drives the voltage-boosted clock to the gate of the gate-coupling transistor to turn off the power transistor.
124Dual-Use Comparator/Op Amp for Use as Both a Successive-Approximation ADC and DAC7,741,9812010/06/22ICSA re-configurable circuit acts as an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and as a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). An array of binary-weighted capacitors stores an analog input. Switches connect different capacitors in the array to fixed voltages that cause charge-sharing with a terminal capacitor. The voltage of the terminal capacitor is compared by a re-configurable comparator stage for each different combination of the capacitors. The comparison results are analyzed to determine the closest digital value for the analog input. In DAC mode, the array capacitors are switched based on an input digital value. The switched capacitors connect to a charge-sharing line to generate an analog voltage that is applied to the re-configurable comparator stage. A differential amplifier generates a buffered analog voltage that is fed back to the other input of the re-configurable comparator stage for unity gain. The gain of the re-configurable comparator stage adjusts for ADC and DAC modes.
125Slew-rate-enhanced error amp with adaptive transconductance and single dominant pole shared by main and auxiliary amps7,795,9762010/09/14ICSAn error amplifier can be used to control a power regulator transistor. The error amplifier has a main amplifier, a pull-up auxiliary amplifier, and a pull-down auxiliary amplifier that all drive an output. A compensating capacitor on the output sets a single dominant pole for all amplifiers, increasing stability. High slew rates are provided by increased slew current from the auxiliary amplifiers that turn on when the differential input has an absolute voltage difference larger than an intentional offset. The intentional offset is introduced into the auxiliary amplifiers by adjusting a p-channel to n-channel transistor ratio in a leg of the auxiliary amplifiers. A source degenerated resistor in the main amplifier reduces supply headroom and increases linearity by connecting sources of two differential transistors that receive the differential input. Cascode transistors increase gain and output impedance. Reliability is increased as no positive feedback is used in the amplifiers.
126Method and apparatus for coding mode selection8,498,3302013/07/30AIBDMethod and apparatus for providing a fast and accurate video coding process are disclosed. After checking the coding history of certain coded video frame units of a video, the order of the inter prediction and the intra prediction is adaptively exchanged for each coding video frame unit of an inter frame. Furthermore, the computations for coding modes in the latter part of the computation order are selectively skipped so as to speed up the coding process without degrading the video quality.
127Integrated circuit modeling method and framework tool8,205,1742012/06/19AIBDAn integrated circuit modeling method 100 implementable on computer, which has an executable software model 145 having modules 140 of reusable functional cores 105 coded in a high level language and a virtual platform of the integrated circuit employable in an architecture exploration step 115. A modeling library of modules coded in high level languages and hardware level languages are provided and instantiated according to user input in a functional verification step 120 having a co-simulation environment, with interface code 170 between modules automatically generated by an interface generator 130 based on a two dimensional data array of hardware specification inputs 205, the interface code 170 further interfacing with wrappers engaged between high and hardware level language modules.
128Method and apparatus for subpixel-based down-sampling8,326,0502012/12/04AIBDThis invention relates to method and apparatus for subpixel-based down-sampling. This invention implements an adaptive filter 140 based on edge detection, which removes visible color fringing artifacts while efficiently retaining sharpness.
129Systems, methods, and computer program products for transmitting and/or receiving media streams8,185,6502012/05/22CCTA method includes receiving encoded media content, transforming the encoded media content into web page content by dividing the encoded media content into a plurality of web page files formatted as a static web page, and transmitting the web page content over the network in response to a request.
130Synchronizing buffer map offset in peer-to-peer live media streaming systems8,082,3562011/12/20CCTA method performed by a new joining peer device in a peer-to-peer (P2P) network comprises receiving a plurality of buffer maps, each of the received buffer maps associated with a respective other peer device in the P2P network. The method also includes discerning playback positions associated with the received buffer maps, generating a starting offset for the new joining peer using one or more of the discerned playback positions. Requests for portions of a media stream are scheduled in accordance with the starting offset, and the scheduler will build a buffer map from this offset and begin to request the media buffer.
131Method of data request scheduling in peer-to-peer sharing networks7,991,9062011/08/02CCTSystems and methods are provided for scheduling data requests for streaming media data in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network. A method is provided to increase a peer's contribution to the whole P2P network by partitioning the data chunks to request into several regions according to their relative time urgency, and data requests are scheduled in an effort to maintain availability of data in each region to a corresponding predefined target amount.
132Electronic package with stacked modules with channels passing through metal layers of the modules8,194,4112012/06/05ICSOne aspect of the present invention provides an electronic package, comprising at least a first module and a second module arranged on top of the first module, the modules together in the form of a module stack, wherein the first and second modules are adhesively connected together, each module includes a substrate layer having at least one metal layer, at least one die and a plastic(s) package molding compound layer molded over said die or dice, in each module the die or dice are bonded on said substrate layer via the metal layer, a plurality of channels formed generally vertically acting as vias to connect the metal layers and arranged adjacent to the die or dice in at least one of the modules, some or all the channels provided with an inner surface coated with a conductive material layer or filled with a conductive material for electrical connection whereby the dice are electrically connected together, and means serving as an intermediary for providing electrical, mechanical and thermal connectivity, communication externally and connected to the channels.
133Reduced instruction set television control system and method of use8,130,1342012/03/06AIBDThe claimed invention relates to an interactive television system including a controller for converting the hand motion of the user into acceleration data of three axes by a single 3-axis accelerometer 113 and an interactive system for mapping the output of the acceleration data with the pre-defined data in a motion database thereof so that the user can remotely control the TV centric devices with a reduced set of instructions. The claimed invention also relates to a method of using a controller incorporated with a single 3-axis accelerometer to control an interactive system for TV centric devices.
134Channel estimation techniques for OFDM8,737,5462014/05/27COMAn Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) receiver comprises: a channel estimator receiving a signal that includes a plurality of symbols, each of the symbols including a plurality of pilots and a plurality of data subcarriers, wherein each symbol further includes at least one pilot subcarrier, the estimator using a first channel response estimate of the at least one pilot subcarrier in a first symbol to select a first weight matrix from a plurality of pre-generated weight matrices, and generating channel estimation information for data subcarriers in the first symbol using the selected first weight matrix.
135System and method for time synchronization of OFDM-based communications8,451,9572013/05/28COMSystems and methods for time synchronization of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)-based communications are disclosed. A cyclic prefix (CP) correlation-based timing synchronization method is disclosed for early path (e.g. first-received path) detection for OFDM-based communication. Systems and methods are disclosed for performing double peak value detection in an OFDM-based system for reliably detecting an early (e.g., first-received) path in a received OFDM symbol for use in timing synchronization. In the double peak value detection method, a first peak value detection is performed to detect the path with the largest power, and a second peak value detection is then performed to detect a desired early (e.g., first-received) path. A compensation linear curve is used to facilitate the second peak value detection.
136Quasi-vertical light emitting diode7,939,8472011/05/10IOTSENA quasi-vertical light emitting device is provided. According to one embodiment of the present invention, the quasi-vertical light emitting diode includes a sapphire substrate; a plurality of semiconductor layers grown on the sapphire substrate, the plurality of semiconductor layers including an n-GaN layer, an active layer, and a p-GaN layer; a plurality of holes etched in the plurality of semiconductor layers, each of the plurality of holes etched to the sapphire substrate, and a plurality of sapphire holes in the sapphire substrate, each of the plurality of holes aligned with one of the plurality of sapphire holes to form hole walls, the hole walls and bottom deposited with an n-metal and each of the plurality of holes filled with another metal to form a n-electrode contact; an n-mesa in the active layer and the p-GaN layer, the n-mesa deposited with an n-metal and a passivation layer grown over the n-metal; and a p-metal layer deposited on the p-GaN layer, and a p-electrode bonded to the p-metal.
137Light emitting device package for temeperature detection8,093,7882012/01/10IOTSENA light emitting device package and a lighting system are provided. According to one embodiment, a functional substrate; at least one light emitting element bonded onto the functional substrate; and at least one design-in thermal detection unit built onto the functional substrate are provided, wherein the design-in thermal detection unit is proximate to the light emitting element, and wherein the design-in thermal detection unit is configured to detect the temperature and transmit a temperature signal. The design-in thermal detection unit may be an NTC thermistor based on a semiconductor substrate. A control system may be included to detect temperature and make any necessary current adjustments in order to maintain consistent performance of the light emitting element.
138Epitaxial Growth of III-V Compounds on (111) Silicon for Solar Cells8,299,3512012/10/30ICSA multi-junction device can be used as a high efficiency solar cell, laser, or light-emitting diode. Multiple epitaxial films grown over a substrate have very low defect densities because an initial epitaxial layer is a coincidence-site lattice (CSL) layer that has III-V atoms that fit into lattice sites of Silicon atoms in the substrate. The substrate is a Si (111) substrate which has a step height between adjacent terraces on its surface that closely matches the step height of GaAs (111). Any anti-phase boundaries (APBs) formed at terrace steps cancel out within a few atomic layers of GaAs in the (111) orientation since the polarity of the GaAs molecule is aligned with the (111) direction. A low CSL growth temperature grows GaAs horizontally along Si terraces before vertical growth. Tunnel diode and active solar-cell junction layers can be grown over the CSL at higher temperatures.
139System and Method for Content Distribution with Broadcast Encryption8,468,3412013/06/18AIBDThe claimed invention relates to system and method for providing encrypted content via a distribution network 630 with efficient key distribution and distribution network assignment. The claimed invention assigns users to content-specific distribution network in which the content is broadcast. This makes the content access much more efficient by conducting the authorization at the time of joining the content-specific distribution network and providing the content to entitled users through broadcasting. The claimed invention provides additional security by removing a user from the content-specific distribution network when his entitlement is no longer valid.
140Lighting control system and method8,081,2162011/12/20IOTSENA lighting control system for controlling the lighting of a predetermined area is provided. According to one embodiment, the lighting control system comprises one or more light sources positioned in the predetermined area, the light source configured to include adjustable light intensity; a camera positioned and configured to capture an image of the predetermined area; and a controller in operable communication with the one or more light sources and the camera, the controller configured to control the one or more light sources and adjust the light intensity of the light source. The controller is configured to operate in a closed control loop to automatically adjust the lighting conditions of a predetermined area or environment. A false alarm checking process checks for temporary or localized events to prevent unnecessary lighting adjustments.
141Lens Control Apparatus8,363,1502013/01/29IOTSENAn autofocus and motion control apparatus is provided. According to one embodiment, the autofocus and motion control apparatus comprises a lens control apparatus having an imaging lens unit and a lens holder and a plurality of actuators configured to move the lens holder in predetermined directions within the lens control apparatus. Embodiments of the lens control apparatus include a casing; an imaging lens unit and lens holder movable within the casing along an optical axis, the imaging lens unit and lens holder further pivotable within the casing, an autofocus actuator is configured to move the imaging lens unit and lens holder within the casing along the optical axis; a first lateral actuator is configured to provide a force to pivot the lens holder in a first direction; and a second lateral actuator is configured to provide a force to pivot the lens holder in a second direction.
142Method of processing sequential information in packets streamed over a network8,355,3382013/01/15AIBDA method of processing sequential information in near real-time data packets streamed over a network includes providing a process running according to a process clock. The process buffers and decodes the streamed data packets. The speed of the process clock is dynamically controlled in accordance with a receipt time value of a data packet. The speed of the process clock is run faster or slower than a system clock.
143Multiple antenna spatial multiplexing optimal detection8,279,9652012/10/02COMMIMO detection is described that reduces the complexity of computations for finding the soft bit output. The detection process includes QR factorization splitting the distance calculations into two groups, subset lookup using a last cross constellation set (LCCS) lookup, and minimal distance lookup with soft bit output calculation. By grouping the distance calculations into a first group that has one antenna transmitting using a modulation scheme with a generally square constellation diagram and a second group for all of the other antenna constellation diagrams, the LCCS lookup process may be used which substantially reduces the number of calculations to be made in the detection process. Moreover, in the special case of 2x2 antenna, QR factorization is performed by applying a scaled Givens rotation to the channel matrix. The application of the scaled Givens rotation operator eliminates any square root operations that would be performed in a standard QR factorization.
144Rollable and/or foldable antenna systems and methods for use thereof8,421,6832013/04/16COMAn antenna system comprises a ground plane, a flexible substrate, a first antenna element disposed upon the flexible substrate and proximal to the ground plane, the flexible substrate configured so as to be at least partially rolled, and a Radio Frequency (RF) module in communication with the first antenna element and transmitting and receiving radio waves through the first antenna element.
145Method, system or apparatus for adjusting a brightness level associated with at least a portion of a backlight of a display device8,514,1672013/08/20IOTSENEmbodiments of methods, systems, or apparatuses relating to adjusting a brightness level associated with at least a portion of a backlight of a display device.
146Apparatus and method for generating electricity using piezoelectric material7,902,7272011/03/08ICSAn apparatus and method for generating electricity using piezoelectric material. The apparatus comprises a first elongate member and a second elongate member that are joining together at first and second points which are spaced apart from each other. The second elongate member comprises a piezoelectric element, or has a piezoelectric element mounted thereon. When pressure is applied to the first elongate member, the second elongate member is stretched and the stretching force is applied to the piezoelectric element. This generates electricity. A similar arrangement with a third elongate member may be provided on the other side of the second elongate member. The apparatus may be placed in a shoe or underneath a floor, so that the variation in pressure caused by walking may be used in generate electricity.
147Variable Gain BiCMOS Amplifier8,111,1052012/02/07COMAn amplifier circuit comprising: a MOSFET amplifier circuit; a BJT amplifier circuit; a MOSFET switch circuit arranged for switching between the MOSFET amplifier circuit and the BJT amplifier circuit to implement different gain modes of the amplifier circuit.
148Programmable Gain Amplifier and Embedded Filter8,013,6722011/09/06COMThere is provided an integrated circuit having a programmable gain amplifier and an embedded filter. The programmable gain amplifier and the filter comprise a gain element having an inverting input for receiving an input and a feedback signal, a non-inverting input coupled to ground, and an output. The gain element also has one or more feedback loops coupling the output of the gain element to the inverting input of the gain element. Each feedback loop has a switch coupled in series with at least one passive component. Each switch has a first state to connect the corresponding feedback loop and a second state to disconnect the corresponding feedback loop. Each switch is programmatically configurable to provide a first gain and a first bandwidth and a second gain and a second bandwidth such that the first bandwidth is substantially equal to the second bandwidth.
149Current-matching intermodulation suppression8,165,5532012/04/24COMA circuit is provided for suppression of second-order intermodulation in a double-balanced mixer circuit. The circuit includes a duplicate transconductor element for duplicating AC current in a transconductor pair of the double-balanced mixer circuit. A fundamental cancellation element cancels a fundamental component of an AC current of the duplicate transconductor element, while preserving a second-order intermodulation component. A phase inversion element feeds an output current of the fundamental cancellation element to the transconductor pair of the double-balanced mixer circuit, to substantially remove the second-order intermodulation component from a differential output of the double-balanced mixer circuit.
150Vision treatment procedures and devices8,002,4092011/08/23CCTA vision treatment system comprises a computer and a user input output module associated with the computer, the user input output module including a display screen and means for receiving user input, wherein the computer includes a testing and training module for one or more vision disorders, the training and testing module in communication with the user input output module and testing a user's cutoff spatial frequency of a contrast sensitivity and applying a training regimen based upon Perceptual Template Model (PTM) analysis of interactions with the user.
151ESD protection using a capacitivly-coupled clamp for protecting low-voltage core transistors from high-voltage outputs8,072,7212011/12/06ICSAn electro-static-discharge (ESD) protection circuit protects core transistors. An internal node to the gate of an n-channel output transistor connects to the drain of an n-channel gate-grounding transistor to ground. The gate of the gate-grounding transistor is a coupled-gate node that is coupled by an ESD coupling capacitor to the output and to ground by an n-channel disabling transistor and a leaker resistor. The gate of the n-channel disabling transistor is connected to power and disables the ESD protection circuit when powered. An ESD pulse applied to the output is coupled through the ESD coupling capacitor to pulse high the coupled-gate node and turn on the gate-grounding transistor to ground the gate of the n-channel output transistor, which breaks down to shunt ESD current. The ESD pulse is prevented from coupling through a parasitic Miller capacitor of the n-channel output transistor by the gate-grounding transistor.
152Compact Imaging Device8,031,4192011/10/04IOTSENAn imaging apparatus may comprise a lens assembly including one or more lenses, an image sensor to receive light from the lens assembly, and an actuator to adjust a position of the lens assembly. An actuator may be mounted on an image sensor, wherein a surface area of the actuator need not extend substantially beyond a surface area of the image sensor.
153Hybrid analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with binary-weighted-capacitor sampling array and a sub-sampling charge-redistributing array for sub-voltage generation7,812,7572010/10/12ICSA hybrid Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has a binary-weighted capacitor array and a sub-voltage capacitor array that are coupled together by a coupling capacitor. The sub-voltage capacitor array uses a minimum capacitor size that matches the minimum capacitor size of the binary-weighted capacitor array. The coupling capacitor is double the minimum size and reduces a voltage effect on a charge sharing line by half. Second coupling capacitors in the sub-voltage capacitor array each reduce the voltage effect by half, so that first, second, and third sub-voltage capacitors in the sub-voltage capacitor array produce 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 voltage swings using the minimum size capacitance. Only MSB capacitors in the binary-weighted capacitor array sample the analog input voltage. During conversion, MSB's from a Successive-Approximation-Register (SAR) are applied to binary-weighted capacitors while LSB's are applied to sub-voltage capacitors. The total capacitance is reduced by applying the LSB's only to the sub-voltage capacitor array.
154Lighting control system and LED lamp8,373,3602013/02/12IOTSENA lighting control system and an LED lamp for use with the lighting control system are provided. In one embodiment, the LED lamp includes a color LED including a red LED, a green LED, and a blue LED, and a lamp contact having a first contact section, a second contact section, and a third contact section, each of the first contact section, the second contact section, and the third contact section including a positive contact and a negative contact, wherein the first contact section is electrically connected to the red LED, the second contact section is electrically connected to the green LED, and the third contact section is electrically connected to the blue LED. The lighting control system may include an LED driver unit configured to provide independent electrical connection with each of the contact sections of the LED lamp.
155Method and apparatus for adaptive quantization in digital video coding8,451,8962013/05/28AIBDThe invention relates to adjusting the quantization parameter in digital video coding. A shift value (QP Shift) is used to adjust the quantization parameter. The shift value is determined in a determining step 101. The video nature is determined and compared with a threshold in a comparing step 102 to adjust the shift value adaptively according to the frame type in an adjusting step 103. The shift value shifts the quantization parameter in a shifting step 104.
156Coordinate Locating Method, Coordinate Locating Device, and Display Apparatus Comprising The Coordinate Locating Device8,427,4432013/04/23IOTSENA coordinate locating device for a display apparatus is provided, which can have lower manufacturing costs and can locate the coordinates of a single or multiple objects. The coordinate locating device includes a light source configured to emit light, wherein said light source comprises a light emitting device, at least one reflector configured to reflect the light from the light source, and a detector configured to detect the light reflected by the at least one reflector, wherein the light source and the detector are disposed at different positions on the same edge of the coordinate locating device.
157Method and apparatus for code acquisition8,693,6062014/04/08COMThe present invention relates to a method and apparatus for code acquisition. The present invention performs variable delay correlation to obtain the peak correlation result which is immune to carrier frequency offset and Doppler. The present invention makes use of a mapping parameter which is immune to sampling frequency offset. In particular, the present invention is applicable to the DTMB standard.
158Coordinate locating method, coordinate locating device, and display apparatus comprising the coordinate locating device8,937,6122015/01/20IOTSENA coordinate locating device capable of locating the coordinates of two or more objects is provided for a display apparatus. The coordinate locating device includes a first detector arranged together with a first light source at a first corner of the coordinate locating device, a second detector arranged together with a second light source at a second corner of the coordinate locating device, at least one reflector configured to reflect light from the first and second light sources, and a mirror arranged on a first edge of the coordinate locating device, configured to reflect mirrored images of two or more objects intruding the coordinate locating device, wherein the first and second detectors detect real images of the two or more objects, and at least one of the first and second detectors further detects the mirrored images of the two or more objects reflected by the mirror.
159Remote control devices and methods8,441,3882013/05/14AIBDA remote control device comprising a motion detector consisting of a single accelerometer, means for receiving data from the motion detector and mapping the received motion detector data to at least one user instruction, and means for transmitting a signal indicative of the at least one user instruction.
160Control of bit-rate and packet duplication in a real-time media stream8,320,3642012/11/27AIBDA method for controlling a real-time media stream between a sender and a receiver. The method includes streaming, from the sender, media packets over a network at a bit-rate, determining at the sender a loss-rate for the streamed media packets not received at the receiver. The sender optionally generates duplicate packets for a selected number of media packets and streams the duplicate packets over the network when the loss-rate is above a first loss-rate threshold, or varies the bit-rate of streaming the media packets over the network when the loss-rate is above a second loss-rate threshold.
161Method and apparatus for zoom motion estimation8,170,1102012/05/01AIBDIn accordance with an example embodiment of the present invention, the present invention provides method and apparatus for motion compensated prediction. Apart from translational motion, zoom motion is taken into account by sampling an interpolated frame with one or more selected sampling rates to generate one or more zoom reference frames; matching a frame with the zoom reference frames; and determining one or more motion data.
162Valve with radiating structure for a tire pressure monitoring system8,186,2092012/05/29ICSA valve for a tire pressure monitoring system in which the valve acts a coaxial conductor to transmit a signal to a receiver presented. A valve stem electrically isolated from a valve pin form the coaxial conductor. In a tire pressure monitoring system, a tire pressure measurement module is positioned inside a tire. In one embodiment, a conductive radiating structure is electrically connected or coupled to the valve pin to receive the tire pressure information signal and transmit it to a receiver. The above configuration further permits a rechargeable battery in the tire pressure measurement module to be recharged via the tire valve. The valve pin and valve stem, being electrically isolated from one another, are used as recharging paths for the battery.
163Method and apparatus for improving video quality by utilizing a unified loop filter8,259,8192012/09/04AIBDThe present invention relates to method and apparatus for improving video quality. The present invention provides a unified loop filter including: a pixel determining unit which determines the type of a pixel based on boundary strength; a similarity transforming unit which transforms a nonlinear filter into a nonlinear similarity-ordered statistics filter; and an integrating unit which integrates the nonlinear similarity-ordered statistics filter with a linear image filtering portion. The unified loop filter is applicable to filter reconstructed frames when an encoder or a decoder is processing a video signal.
164Method and apparatus for estimation of channel temporal correlation and MIMO mode selection in LTE system8,644,1812014/02/04COMThe present invention relates to a method and apparatus for channel temporal correlation estimation and MIMO mode selection. An embodiment of the invention under LTE system utilizes SRS symbols for temporal correlation estimation and performs MIMO mode selection based on the said temporal correlation estimation.
165Printhead for thermal inkjet printing and the printing method thereof8,191,9952012/06/05IOTSENThe present invention relates to a printhead for thermal inkjet printing and the printing method thereof. The printhead includes: a substrate having a plurality of orifices with a firing element in each of said plurality of orifices, wherein said plurality of orifices are arranged in a single column, and said printhead is disposed at an angle to a horizontal direction along which said printhead scans; and firing circuits for energizing said plurality of firing elements to eject ink on a printing medium by respectively transmitting a plurality of firing signals to said plurality of firing elements. According to the present invention, the print speed and resolution can be improved.
166Image stabilization of compact imaging device8,633,9912014/01/21IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging device having a small form factor.
167Adjusting a brightness level of a backlight of a display device8,890,7932014/11/18IOTSENEmbodiments of methods, systems, or apparatuses relating to adjusting a brightness level of at least a portion of a backlight of a display device based, at least in part, on one or more measurements of ambient light values.
168ACK/NACK detection in LTE PUSCH8,315,1852012/11/20COMThe present invention relates to ACK-NACK detection in an LTE wireless communication system. To determine a threshold value for an ACK-NACK transmission, an SC-FDMA signal is received from user equipment. Then, a power estimate of soft data bits is used to establish a threshold value for determining the presence of an ACK-NACK signal. Using this threshold value, a signal from the user equipment is analyzed to determine if it contains an ACK or NACK transmission.
169Method of error correction for a multicast message8,397,1202013/03/12AIBDA method of error correction for a multicast message sent over a wireless network includes encoding a message into N data packets using a forward error correction code and multicasting at least L data packets of the N data packets over a wireless network to recipients. Recipients not receiving the at least L data packets send a reply to the sender. The sender then selects a second subset of X data packets from the N data packets, and multicasts the X data packets over the wireless network to the recipients.
170Apparatus for aligning electronic components8,544,1652013/10/01ICSA method of aligning electronic components comprising providing a positioning member 110 having at least one formation 120 for receiving an electronic component; said at least one formation having lateral boundaries 35, 36 for constraining movement of an electronic component; placing a first electronic component 10a in said at least one formation; and providing a force for actively aligning said first electronic component with a lateral boundary of said at least one formation. The force may, for example, be provided by tilting the positioning member, by providing suction or by using an actuator. An apparatus for aligning electronic components and a 3D system of stacked electronic components is also disclosed.
171Self-Powered Electronic Label8,261,9712012/09/11IOTSENAn electronic label system is provided which includes a data source having information to be displayed by an electronic label. An optical source such as an LED array broadcasts optical signals modulated with the data source data to plural electronic labels. Each electronic label has an optical receiver which receives the modulated optical signals and also receives unmodulated optical signals to supply power to an energy storage device. A mode switch switches the optical receiver between a signal reception mode and an energy storage device power-supplying mode. One or more bistable displays display the data received from the modulated optical signals. Through the use of bistable displays, the power consumption of the electronic label is greatly reduced while use of a single receiving element for receiving both the signal light and power storage light reduces the number of components needed to assemble the electronic label, thus reducing cost.
172Constant-Current Control Module using Inverter Filter Multiplier for Off-line Current-Mode Primary-Side Sense Isolated Flyback Converter8,300,4312012/10/30ICSA fly-back AC-DC power converter has a constant-current control loop that senses the primary output current in a transformer to control the secondary output without an expensive opto-isolator. A primary-side control circuit can use either a Quasi-Resonant (QR) or a Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) control loop to switch primary current through the transformer on and off. A feedback voltage is compared to a primary-side voltage sensed from the primary current loop to turn the switch on and off. A multiplier loop generates the feedback voltage using a multiplier. A level-shift inverter and a low-pass filter act as the multiplier by multiplying an off duty cycle of the switch by the feedback voltage to generate a filtered voltage. A high-gain error amp compares the filtered voltage to a reference voltage to generate the feedback voltage. The multiplier produces a simple relationship between the secondary current and the reference voltage, yielding simplified current control.
173Bi-directional trimming methods and circuits for a precise band-gap reference8,193,8542012/06/05ICSA bandgap reference circuit has trimming-up resistors and trimming-down resistors for bi-directional trimming. PNP transistors have base and collectors grounded and emitters connected to parallel resistors. A difference resistor drives an inverting input of an op amp that drives a transistor that generates the bandgap reference voltage Vbg. A sensing resistor connects Vbg to a splitting node that connects to the non-inverting input through a first parallel resistor. The splitting node also connects through a second parallel resistor to the inverting input. Fuses or switches enable the trimming-up and trimming-down resistors. The trimming-up resistors are in series with the sensing resistor and the trimming-down resistors are in series with an output resistor that connects Vbg to reference voltage Vref. The circuit can be designed for a more typical process since bi-directional trimming allows Vref to be raised or lowered. Many circuits need no trimming when targeted for the typical process.
174Method and apparatus for automatic gain control in a TD-LTE system8,644,2122014/02/04COMThis invention describes method and apparatus for automatic gain control (AGC) for a TD-LTE system, taking into consideration the TD-LTE frame structure. In one embodiment, an AGC method comprises: adjusting RF gain for subframe j (where 0<=j<=9) in a radio frame according to an average peak signal power of subframe j in previous radio frames when a terminal is lack of information in downlink timing and in uplink/downlink configuration; computing a first average signal power in one or more downlink subframes as received from at least one base station when the terminal has information in downlink timing but is lack of information in uplink/downlink configuration; and computing a second average signal power in one or more downlink subframes as received from at least one base station when the terminal has information in downlink timing and in uplink/downlink configuration.
175Channel estimation for long term evolution (LTE) terminals8,462,6132013/06/11COMThe present invention relates to a method of channel estimation comprising two major steps. The first step is the least-squared and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) estimations on the pilot resource elements to generate the channel response estimates at the predefined pilot locations. The second step of the channel estimation, which utilizes the results from the first step to compute the channel response estimates for the remaining resource elements, comprises the following three operations: (i) averaging of each pair of adjacent pilot resource elements in the frequency direction to obtain the channel response estimate of the resource element in the middle of those two pilot resource elements; (ii) MMSE interpolation in the time domain for all the sub-carriers containing pilot signals; and (iii) linear interpolation in the frequency direction for all the sub-carriers not containing any pilot signals.
176Method and apparatus for video coding by ABT-based just noticeable difference model8,559,5112013/10/15AIBDThe present invention relates to method and apparatus for video coding by ABT-based just noticeable difference (JND). For building the just noticeable difference model, spatial content information (SCI) is used to represent the spatial appearance similarity between one macroblock and its sub-blocks and the motion characteristic distance (MCD) is used to represent the motion characteristics similarity between one macroblock and its sub-blocks. For intra frames, the balance strategy based on the obtained SCI of the macroblock is used to generate the ABT-based JND model. For inter frames, the balanced strategy based on the obtained SCI and MCD of the macroblock is used to generate the ABT-based JND model. Using the ABT-based JND model, the residual coefficients for each block in a frame is filtered to obtain a reduced set of residual coefficients for transmission without degradation in visual quality.
177Biaxial scanning mirror having resonant frequency adjustment8,072,6642011/12/06IOTSENA biaxial micro-electromechanical (MEMS) device is disclosed. The device includes a gimbal rotatable about a gimbal axis of rotation. A pair of gimbal torsion bars connects the gimbal to a support along the gimbal rotation axis. A mirror plate is rotatable about a mirror axis of rotation, the mirror plate rotation axis being substantially perpendicular to the gimbal rotation axis. A pair of mirror plate torsion bars connects the mirror plate to the gimbal along the mirror plate axis of rotation. One or more gimbal moment-of-inertia-altering blocks are positioned on a surface of the mirror plate away from the gimbal axis of rotation. Additionally, one or more mirror plate moment-of-inertia-altering blocks are positioned on a surface of the mirror plate away from the mirror plate rotation axis such that the distance from the mirror plate axis determines a resonant frequency of the biaxial MEMS device.
178Non-resonant Energy Harvesting Devices and Methods7,936,1092011/05/03ICSDisclosed is an energy harvesting device which can produce electrical power from vibrational energy over a wide range of frequencies. The energy harvester includes a housing having opposing slots. A bendable substrate is at least partially positioned within the housing and at least partially extends through the opposing housing slots. A piezoelectric element is positioned on the bendable substrate and a weight cooperates with the bendable substrate. A stopper is positioned on each end of the bendable substrate that extends outside the housing; the stoppers are configured to maintain a portion of the bendable substrate within the housing such that the bendable substrate is freely movable within the housing. Vibrational energy causes collisions between the bendable substrate and the housing such that the forces on the piezoelectric element generate power.
179Interactive projection device8,434,8732013/05/07IOTSENAn interactive projection device includes a light source configured to emit an input light beam, wherein the light source comprises a visible light emitting device; a first beam splitter configured to split the input light beam into first and second split light beams; a second beam splitter configured to split a scattered light beam received from a surface into third and fourth split light beams; an image forming device configured to produce an image light beam based on the first split light beam and emit the image light beam onto the surface through the first and second splitters, thereby generating a projection image on the surface; and a detector configured to detect the invisible light of the third split light beam, thereby acquiring a scattering image from the surface.
180Optical Black-Level Cancellation for Optical Sensors Using Open-Loop Sample Calibration Amplifier8,179,4552012/05/15ICSA Optical Black Pixel (OBP) cancellation circuit corrects offsets in sensors in a CCD/CMOS image sensor when reading dark pixels such at the periphery. A pixel voltage is switched to a sampling capacitor during two phases of the same pixel pulse. Sampling capacitors and feedback capacitors connect to differential inputs of an amplifier. An accumulating capacitor accumulates voltage differences and generates a common-mode voltage that is fed back to another sampling capacitor that stores an amplifier offset. The sampling capacitor and accumulating capacitor and their associated switches form a discrete-time first-order low-pass filter that filters the pixel voltage during the first phase. In the second phase the amplifier acts as a unity-gain amplifier to output an average of the pixel voltage differences generated during an OBP time when blackened or covered pixels are read from the image sensor.
181Semiconductor package and method of manufacturing the same8,248,8032012/08/21IOTSENThe subject invention relates to a semiconductor package and method of manufacturing the same. The semiconductor package of the subject invention comprises a substrate with a through hole penetrating therethrough; a semiconductor chip positioned on the substrate covering the through hole; and a thermal conductive device filling the through hole and contacting the semiconductor chip. According to the subject invention, the thermal resistance in the structure of the semiconductor package is substantially reduced and thus desirable performance of heat spreading or dissipation is achieved. In addition, the production cost and size of the semiconductor package are also reduced.
182Hybrid illumination system for head-up display8,436,9522013/05/07IOTSENA head-up display including a hybrid illumination system is provided. A light mixing unit provides a substantially homogenous light source to a reflective display unit. A concentrating optics unit collects ambient light and directs it towards the light mixing unit. At the same time, an electrically-powered light source emits light which is directed towards the light mixing unit. One or more optical elements direct the ambient light and the light source light into the light mixing unit for homogenization. A condensing unit receives the homogenized light mixture and outputs the condensed light to a polarizing beam splitter. A reflective display modulates the light from the polarizing beam splitter with information from a source of electrical information signals back towards the polarizing beam splitter. A projection unit projects the modulated light to create an image on a windshield.
183Via and method of via forming and method of via filling8,232,6262012/07/31ICSAn electronic or micromechanical device having first (11) and second (12) surfaces and a via extending through the device from the first surface to the second surface. The via comprises integrally formed first (84, 86), second (82) and third (88) portions. The first portion (84, 86) extends from the first surface (11) to the second surface (12). The second portion (82) extends over a part of the first surface (11) of the device. The third portion (88) extends over a part of the second surface (12) of the device. Preferably the first portion comprises first and second parts, the second part extending through an active region of the device and having a narrower width than the first part. A method of forming and filling the via is also disclosed.
184Light concentration and energy conversion system9,482,8712016/11/01IOTSENAn optical system for light energy concentration may comprise a light concentrator including two or more light-converging elements, a light splitting element to receive the converging light from the light-converging elements and to produce light having a first spectral component and light having a second spectral component, and a light directing element to direct the light having the first spectral component through a light guide and to direct the light having the second spectral component to a location external to the light guide.
185Systems and methods for binocular vision diagnosis and treatment8,328,3542012/12/11CCTA device for at least one of diagnosis and treatment of binocular vision disorders is disclosed. The device comprises a portable, wearable viewing apparatus that includes a left eye electronic display and a right eye electronic display, a dual data channel input, wherein each data channel corresponds to a respective one of the left eye and right eye electronic displays, a left eye adjustable optic structure adjusting a view of the left eye electronic display, and a right eye adjustable optic structure adjusting a view of the right eye electronic display. The device also includes a controller in communication with the dual data channel input that renders a first image at the left eye electronic display and a second image at the right eye electronic display simultaneously, in which the first and second images are different, and a memory in communication with the controller configured to store at least one of a diagnosis image pattern and a treatment image pattern for said binocular vision disorders for display by the viewing apparatus.
186High temperature superconductor receiver coil magnetic resonance imaging systems and methods compatible with an infant incubator8,410,7812013/04/02CCTSystems and methods which employ a high temperature superconductor (HTS) receiver coil configuration for MRI analysis of small volume subjects, such as infants, are shown. Embodiments provide a HTS tape RF phase array receiver coil implementation. The foregoing HTS tape receiver coil implementation may be provided in a Helmholtz coil configuration. With such a Helmholtz coil configuration, circuitry is preferably provided to provide tuning, matching, and/or decoupling with respect to the HTS receiver coils. Embodiments implement a cryostat configuration to maintain one or more HTS receiver coils at a desired operating temperature (e.g. <=77°K) while providing a safe environment for a subject (e.g. infant) being imaged.
187Memory Efficient Implementation of LDPC Decoder8,879,6402014/11/04COMA computer processor implementable method of decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC) code, comprising: receiving a log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) input bitstream; performing a combined bit-deinterleaving and reordering process on the LLR input bitstream and storing in a physical memory space, comprising: determining a logical memory address for each LLR bit in the LLR input bitstream, determining a physical memory address for each LLR bit in the LLR input bitstream from logical memory address of the LLR bit; decoding the LLR input bitstream stored in the physical memory space; and performing a combined de-reordering and de-mapping process on the decoded LLR input bitstream.
188NMOS-based feedback power-clamp for on-chip ESD protection8,369,0542013/02/05ICSA power-to-ground clamp transistor provides electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection. A filter capacitor and resistor generate a filter voltage that is buffered by three stages to drive the gate of the clamp transistor. The filter capacitor is about twenty times smaller than in a conventional clamp circuit. Feedback in the circuit keeps the clamp transistor turned on after the R-C time constant of the capacitor and resistor in the filer has elapsed, allowing for a smaller capacitor to turn on the clamp transistor longer. A sub-threshold-conducting transistor in the first stage conducts only a small sub-threshold current, which extends the discharge time of the first stage. The gate of the sub-threshold-conducting transistor is driven by feedback from the second stage. A feed-forward resistor has a high resistance value to slowly raise the voltage of the second stage from the filter voltage, and thus slowly raise the gate of the sub-threshold-conducting transistor.
189System and method for evaluating network transport effects on delivery of media content8,825,8862014/09/02AIBDA system and a method for evaluating transport of data segments of media content bitstream over a peer-to-peer network by streaming data chunks of a media content through a peer-to-peer network, generating network transport distortion on the data chunks using live experiments, simulation, or artificial generation, determining a playback strategy of each of the data segment at the receiver end, and evaluating a playback performance of the media content bitstream under the playback strategy.
190Compact Imaging Device8,564,8962013/10/22IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging device having a small form factor.
191Method and apparatus for MIMO scheduling8,699,4072014/04/15COMThis invention discloses a method and apparatus for scheduling radio resources among service flows for services supported in a MIMO-OFDM wireless communication system. Preferably a portion of radio resources for allocation is expressed as bandwidth or slots in different units. The method comprises a first stage and a second stage of scheduling. The first stage guarantees supporting minimum data rates for different services. The second stage aims to satisfy a requirement of not exceeding maximum data rates for different services as well as to optimize the spectrum efficiency. Each stage comprises: selecting a primary flow according to prioritization of service flows; allocating a portion of resources for the primary flow; selecting one or more secondary flows if there is resource remaining available, so as to optimize spectrum efficiency when transmitting with the primary flow in the same SDMA region; and allocating a portion of resources to each secondary flow.
192Digital phase lock system with dithering pulse-width-modulation controller8,248,1272012/08/21ICSA Digital Phase-Locked Loop (DPLL) has a digitally-controlled oscillator (DCO) that generates an output clock frequency determined by a digital input with most-significant-bits (MSB's) and a least-significant-bit (LSB). The LSB is generated by a Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) controller clocked by a control clock that is the output clock divided by C. A reference clock is compared to a feedback clock that is the output clock divided by M. The PWM controller generates M/C LSB's for each reference clock period and loads them in parallel to a parallel-to-serial shift register that serially delivers the LSBs. The pulse width is determined by a fine digital loop filter that filters phase comparison results using a fine time resolution. A coarse digital loop filter generates the MSB's from phase comparison results using a coarse time resolution. LSB waveforms are dithered by randomly selecting high-going or low-going pulses and randomly adjusting pulse widths.
193Optimization of polishing stop design8,187,9002012/05/29IOTSENThe present invention provides a method of fabricating vertical LED structures in which the substrate used for epitaxial layer growth is removed through polishing. The polishing technique used in an exemplary embodiment is chemical mechanical polishing using polish stops to provide a sufficiently level plane. Polish stops are provided in the multilayer structure before polishing the surface, the hardness of the polish stop material being greater than the hardness of the material that needs to be removed. Consequently, vertical LEDs can be produced at a lower cost and higher yield compared to either laser lift-off or conventional polishing. Exemplary vertical LEDs are GaN LEDs. The polish stops may be removed by saw dicing, laser dicing or plasma etching.
194Compact imaging device having a laminated component8,692,9322014/04/08IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging device including a laminated portion of an actuator or actuator support.
195Electric power generator with ferrofluid bearings8,552,6072013/10/08IOTSENAn electric generator using ferrofluid bearings is provided. The generator includes stators having plural magnets separated by a yoke of magnetizable materials. A rotor configured to rotate in a horizontal plane is positioned between the stators. The rotor includes plural coils in which current is induced during rotation from passing through the magnetic fields generated by the stators. A first set of ferrofluid bearings is positioned between the first stator and the rotor and a second set is positioned between the rotor and the second stator. A third set of ferrofluid bearings is positioned adjacent to the periphery of the rotor and configured to center the rotor. In one embodiment, the electric generator is wind-driven and supported in a wind collection housing.
196Coordinate Locating Method and Apparatus8,711,1252014/04/29IOTSENA coordinate locating apparatus for locating at least one touch point on a plane and the method thereof are provided. The coordinate locating apparatus comprises: a first detecting unit, comprising a first light emitting element and a first light receiving element, arranged at a first location of the plane; a second detecting unit, comprising a second light emitting element and a second light receiving element, arranged at a second location of the plane; a first optical element arranged along an edge of the plane for reflecting and retro-reflecting light from the first and the second light emitting elements; and a second and third optical elements arranged along two edges of the plane for performing at least one of reflecting and retro-reflecting light from the first and the second light emitting elements or light reflected from the first optical element, both of the two edges being adjacent to the edge along which the first optical element is arranged, wherein the at least one touch point is located on the basis of the detected intensities of light received by the first and the second light receiving elements, and the detected intensities of light are compared with a first threshold and a second threshold.
197LED package for uniform color emission8,373,1832013/02/12IOTSENA light emitting diode package for one or more light emitting diodes mounted on a substrate. A frame is disposed on at least a portion of the substrate and substantially surrounds, but does not contact, the light emitting diode. The frame is substantially transparent to light emitted from the light emitting diode and includes one or more first wavelength converting materials. The wavelength converting materials, which may be one or more phosphors, convert at least a portion of light emitted at the emission wavelength to different wavelength. A cover covers the light emitting diode within the frame. The cover layer includes one or more second wavelength converting materials differing from the first one or more wavelength converting materials in wavelength converting material concentration or in converted light wavelength or in combinations of wavelength converting materials.
198Bootstrapped high-side driver control without static DC current for driving a motor bridge circuit8,258,8522012/09/04ICSA motor driver circuit for driving the gate node of a high-side driver transistor to a boosted voltage from a charge pump draws little or no static current from the charge pump. The gate node is pulled to the boosted voltage by a p-channel pullup-control transistor that is driven by p-channel transistors that are pumped by capacitors that cut off current flow to ground from the charge pump. An n-channel output-shorting transistor shorts the gate node to the output when the high-side driver is turned off. A coupling capacitor initializes the shorting transistor for each output transition. A p-channel output-sensing transistor generates a feedback to a second stage that drives the coupling capacitor. P-channel diode transistors and an n-channel equalizing transistor control the voltage on the coupling capacitor.
199Programmable Electro-Magnetic-Interference (EMI) Reduction with Enhanced Noise Immunity and Process Tolerance8,188,7982012/05/29ICSA frequency dithering circuit reduces emissions that cause Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) by spreading the spectrum of a clock. The clock sequences a counter that drives a digital count value to a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The DAC outputs a sawtooth wave with a wide voltage swing. A subtractor scales down the voltage swing to produce a reduced-swing sawtooth wave which is used as an upper limit voltage. Comparators trigger a set-reset latch to toggle the clock when current pumps charge and discharge a capacitor beyond voltage limits. Since the upper limit voltage is the reduced sawtooth wave from the subtractor, the amount of time to charge the capacitor varies, dithering the period of the clock. The degree of dithering can be adjusted by programming the feedback resistance in the subtractor. The subtractor reduces the sensitivity of dithering to errors in the DAC, allowing for an inexpensive, less precise DAC.
200Gm-C filter tuning circuit based on relaxation oscillator8,373,5022013/02/12COMA relaxation oscillator for generating a first and a second oscillation signals, comprising: a reference-voltage providing circuit for providing a high and a low reference voltages; switches for directing the high and low reference voltages to inputs of a transconductance amplifier and a non-inverting input of a comparator; the transconductance amplifier for generating an output current with a value determined by its transconductance value, controlled by an input tuning voltage, and multiplied by its inputs' voltage difference; a capacitor connecting between the transconductance amplifier output and ground; and the comparator for generating a first and a second digital signals; wherein the first and second digital signals are digital control signals to the switches, and the first and second oscillation signal of the relaxation oscillator respectively; wherein the oscillation frequency of the relaxation oscillator is independent of the reference voltages, achieving accurate frequency turning, and simplifying the reference-voltage providing circuit.
201System for NAND flash parameter auto-detection8,417,8802013/04/09AIBDA system comprising a NAND flash memory device having a multiplicity of parameters; a flash controller configured to perform a NAND flash memory parameter automatic detection process including reading a device identifier of the NAND flash memory device and proceeding if a valid device identifier value is returned, detecting an address cycle and a block type of the NAND flash memory device, detecting a page size of the NAND flash memory device, detecting a spare size of the NAND flash memory device, detecting a memory size of the NAND flash memory device, and detecting a block size of the NAND flash memory device.
202Apparatus for wind collection8,461,7152013/06/11IOTSENThe present invention provides an omnidirectional wind collection apparatus. The wind collector includes an outer housing with a peripheral wind inlet circumferentially formed therein. An inner housing disposed within the outer housing has an inner surface with a first opening at a lower end thereof to guide the collected wind to a smaller second opening at the top end. The inner surface is curved between the bottom and top openings to form a progressively narrower passage. The configuration of the inner surface creates a Venturi effect such that the wind is accelerated toward the second opening. A wind pass-through portion is formed above the second opening in the inner housing. Based on the Bernoulli effect, the passage of uncollected wind through this portion creates a low pressure region that expedites flow of collected wind through the first and second openings of the inner housing.
203Compact Camera Module with Zoom and Auto-Focus Actuators Sharing the Same Rotating Annular Magnet with Alternating Thick and Thin Poles9,217,8412015/12/22IOTSENA compact camera modules has first, second, and third lens groups that move along an optical axis. A stepping motor is centered on the optical axis rather than offset from the optical axis. The motor has two coils that are fixed in place and a shared rotating magnet. The magnet is attached to a rotating guide that has slots to move the first and second lens groups as it rotates. The two coils are alternately energized to rotate the magnet, the rotating guide, and to move the first and second lens groups for zoom. The magnet has alternating thicker and thinner segments of opposite polarity. The thicker segments exert a greater force on an autofocus coil that is energized to move the third lens for the autofocus function. The same shared rotating magnet is used for both zoom and autofocus functions. A more compact design is possible using a shared magnet.
204Forming through-silicon-vias for multi-wafer integrated circuits8,754,5072014/06/17ICSThe present invention provides a method for forming a three-dimensional wafer stack having a single metallized stack via with a variable cross-sectional shape. The method uses at least first and silicon wafers. Each wafer has one or more integrated circuits formed thereon. One or more through-vias are formed in each silicon wafer followed by oxide formation on at least an upper and lower surface of the silicon wafer. The wafers are aligned such that each wafer through via is aligned with a corresponding through via in adjacent stacked wafers. Wafers are bonded to form a three-dimensional wafer stack having one or more stack vias formed from the alignment of individual wafer vias. Via metallization is performed by depositing a seed layer in each of the stack vias followed by copper electroplating to form a continuous and homogeneous metallization path through the three-dimensional wafer stack.
205Proximity based biometric identification systems and methods8,988,1872015/03/24CCTSystems and methods which provide identification of a user in combination with mutual authentication between a user and identification host are shown. Embodiments further provide mutual authentication between the identification host and a resource for which access is controlled, thereby providing three-party authentication (e.g., user, identification host, resource). Although utilizing biometric data for user identification, embodiments store such biometric information within devices which remain in the control of users. Protocols implemented according to embodiments facilitate a decentralized approach to user identification and authentication to allow a user to interact with any of a number of identification hosts for user identification and authorization. Auditing and tracing of user identification and authentication and/or resource access is provided according to embodiments.
206Multiple-input touch panel and method for gesture recognition8,576,2002013/11/05IOTSENA touch panel capable of recognizing at least one gesture and the method thereof are provided. The touch panel comprises: a first optical unit, comprising a first light emitting element and a first light receiving element, arranged at a first position of the touch panel; a first optical element arranged along a first edge of the touch panel for reflecting light; a second and a third optical element arranged along a second and a third edge of the touch panel, respectively, for retro-reflecting the light, the second edge being adjacent to both the third edge and the first edge; and a processing unit for recognizing the at least one gesture according to changes to distance and slope of possible touch points.
207OFDM symbol structure for power line communication8,761,2762014/06/24COMA method for packing data over a power line communication channel is disclosed herein. The method comprises packing data into symbol body, adding a first pad in front of the symbol body to form a full symbol and determining the time instance in which the peak absolute voltage point of the AC electric power occurs. And subsequently it is to send the full symbol through the power line in a manner synchronized with the time instance aforesaid. Based on the interference condition detection, the invention allows receiver side adaptation.
208High optical efficiency CMOS image sensor8,212,2972012/07/03ICSHigh optical efficiency CMOS image sensors capable of sustaining pixel sizes less than 1.2 microns are provided. Due to high photodiode fill factors and efficient optical isolation, microlenses are unnecessary. Each sensor includes plural imaging pixels having a photodiode structure on a semiconductor substrate adjacent a light-incident upper surface of the image sensor. An optical isolation grid surrounds each photodiode structure and defines the pixel boundary. The optical isolation grid extends to a depth of at least the thickness of the photodiode structure and prevents incident light from penetrating through the incident pixel to an adjacent pixel. A positive diffusion plug vertically extends through a portion of the photodiode structure. A negative diffusion plug vertically extends into the semiconductor substrate for transferring charge generated in the photodiode to a charge collecting region within the semiconductor substrate. Pixel circuitry positioned beneath the photodiode controls charge transfer to image readout circuitry.
209Systems and methods for managing wireless communications using link space information8,280,3882012/10/02COMDisclosed are systems and methods which provide for management of wireless communications through the development and use of link space information. Such link space information provides link-centric information with respect to wireless links of a network to thereby provide a view of the network which takes into account phenomena affecting the wireless links. Utilizing such link space information, automated management of various aspects of a wireless network may be provided, including automated provisioning, management, and/or optimization of network links. Network operations may include use of link space information in providing network management applications such as automatic fault management, automatic performance management, operation advisories, and/or the like.
210Vertical light emitting diode device structure and method of fabricating the same8,222,0642012/07/17IOTSENA method of fabricating a compound semiconductor vertical LED is provided. A first growth substrate capable of supporting compound semiconductor epitaxial growth thereon is provided. One or more epitaxial layers of compound semiconductor material such as GaN or InGaN is formed on the first growth substrate to create a portion of a vertical light emitting diode. Plural trenches are formed in the compound semiconductor material. Passivating material is deposited in one or more trenches. A hard material is at least partially deposited in the trenches and optionally on portions of the compound semiconductor material. The hard material has a hardness greater than the hardness of the compound semiconductor. A metal layer is deposited over the compound semiconductor material followed by metal planarization. A new host substrate is bonded to the metal layer and the first growth substrate is removed. Dicing is used to form individual LED devices.
211Self-powered impulse detection system with piezoelectric energy harvester8,072,1222011/12/06ICSA self-powered impulse detecting system comprising a signal transmitter; an energy storage component; and an energy harvester comprising a top plate configured to receive a stress impulse by an external object on its top surface; a bottom plate positioned opposite to the top plate and leaving room in between the bottom plate and the top plate; an elastic element positioned in between the top plate and the bottom plate; a bendable substrate attached at a first end to the bottom surface of the top plate, the bendable substrate is configured to bend freely, colliding with the top plate and a stopper; a piezoelectric element positioned on the bendable substrate; a deadweight attached to a second end of the bendable substrate; wherein collisions between the bendable substrate, the top plate and the stopper cause the bendable substrate to bend along with the piezoelectric element to generate power.
212Deformable lens assembly9,116,2952015/08/25IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging device having a deformable lens.
213Method and device for concentrating, collimating, and directing light8,847,1422014/09/30IOTSENAn optical system for light energy concentration may comprise a light concentrator to convert incident light to converging light, a light collimating element to receive the converging light and to reduce an angle of convergence of the converging light, and a light directing element to direct the reduced-angle converging light to a light guide to transmit the directed light.
214LED phosphor ink composition for ink-jet printing8,329,4852012/12/11IOTSENThe present invention provides an ink jet printable phosphor ink composition for LED packaging that enables precision control of the amount and position of phosphor layers on the LED device or the LED device packaging. The ink includes both a UV-curable resin component and a thermally curable resin component. A phase-separation component prevents phase separation of the UV-curable resin component and the thermally curable resin component. Phosphor particles on the order of less than approximately 2 microns are uniformly dispersed throughout the ink composition. The phosphor ink composition is deposited through either thermal or piezoelectric ink jet printing; a thin layer is deposited in a desired pattern. UV curing (and, optionally, thermal curing) is used to fix each layer followed by subsequent deposition and curing. In this manner, undesirable phosphor settling does not occur and layers are selectively built up to form precise phosphor distributions.
215Mutiple image projection apparatus8,482,5492013/07/09IOTSENMultiple image projection apparatus are described. A cubic multi-prism beam splitter is provided having diagonal interfaces with one or more PBS elements and/or reflective elements positioned thereon. At least first and second spatial light modulators, such as LCoS SLMs, are positioned adjacent the beam splitter cube. The first and second LCoS spatial light modulators and first and second projection optics systems are configured to output a first modulated image from the first LCoS SLM to the first projection optics system and a second modulated image from the second LCoS spatial light modulator to the second projection optics system. In other embodiments, additional LCoS spatial light modulators and light sources produce 3-D images. Addition of sensors permits user interaction with a projected image which is fed back to a controller to optionally change current or future images displayed by the system.
216Stub array microstrip line phase shifter8,847,7022014/09/30COMSystems and methods which utilizes a stub array microstrip line for providing a phase shifter configuration are shown. A stub array microstrip line phase shifter of embodiments may comprises a microstrip line structure, an isolation structure, and a phase tuning structure cooperative to provide phase shifting of signals passed through the microstrip line structure. A microstrip line structure comprises a stub array microstrip line having a plurality of microstrip stubs provided in association with a slotted ground plane having a plurality of slots. The stub array microstrip line is adapted to provide compensation for capacitance and/or inductance associated with the slots of the slotted ground plane. A phase tuning structure provides coupling of signals transmitted by the stub array microstrip line to the slots of the slotted ground plane for signal phase shifting.
217Symmetrical partially coupled microstrip slot feed patch antenna element8,890,7502014/11/18COMSystems and methods which utilize a symmetrical partially coupled microstrip slot feed patch antenna element configuration to provide highly decoupled dual-polarized wideband patch antenna elements are shown. Embodiments provide a microstrip slot feed configuration in which a slot of a first signal feed is centered with respect to the patch and further provide a microstrip slot feed configuration in which slots of a second signal feed are symmetrically disposed with respect to the center of the patch and at positions near the edges of the patch. The microstrip feed utilized in communicating signals with respect to the slots of the second signal feed is adapted to provide signals of substantially equal amplitude and 180° out of phase with respect to each other according to embodiments. The second signal feed configuration utilized according to embodiments provides partial coupling between the patch and the second signal feed.
218Methods for making quasi-vertical light emitting diodes8,211,7212012/07/03IOTSENA method of making quasi-vertical light emitting devices includes growing semiconductor layers on a growth substrate and etching the semiconductor layers to produce device isolation trenches forming separable semiconductor devices and holes. Blind holes are drilled in the substrate at the location of each of the holes in the semiconductor layers. The drilling of the blind holes defines blind hole walls and a blind hole end in each of the blind holes. N-semiconductor metal is deposited in each of the blind holes. An n-electrode contact is formed in each of the blind holes by plating each of the blind holes with an n-electrode metal connected to the n-semiconductor metal. The substrate is thinned to expose the n-electrode metal as an n-electrode. Bonding metal is deposited to the n-electrode for packaging.
219Magnetic structure for Compact Imaging Device8,593,7432013/11/26IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to electromagnetic force generation for an imaging device having a small form factor.
220Ultra Low Voltage Multi-Stage High-Speed CMOS Comparator with Autozeroing8,258,8642012/09/04ICSA pre-amplifier circuit can be cascaded and drive a latch for use in a precision analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The pre-amplifier has a main section and a feedback section connected by feedback resistors that do not produce voltage drops in the main section. Offset is stored on offset capacitors during an autozeroing phase and isolated by transmission gates during an amplifying phase. The offset capacitors drive the gates of feedback transistors that drive output nodes in the main section. Autozeroing sink transistors in the feedback section operate in the linear region while current sink transistors in the main section operate in the saturated region. Kickback-charge isolation transistors may be added for charge isolation. The output may also be equalized by an equalizing transmission gate. A very low power-supply voltage is supported even for high-speed operation with offset cancellation, due to the folded feedback resistor arrangement.
221Charge Compensation Calibration for High Resolution Data Converter8,416,1072013/04/09ICSA calibrating Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has an X-side array with binary-weighted capacitors that connect to an X-side line and a Y-side array connected to a Y-side line. Each array has binary-weighted capacitors from a most-significant-bit (MSB) to a least-significant-bit (LSB), but the LSB capacitor is duplicated as a termination capacitor and a middle capacitor between upper and lower groups is also duplicated as a surrogate capacitor. During calibration, lower array capacitors are switched low while the upper capacitors are driven by a thermometer-code value on both X and Y arrays. The thermometer value is inverted to the X-array but remains uninverted on the Y array. The lower array bits are tested to final a calibration value that has X and Y side voltages balanced.
222Current-Switching LED Driver Using DAC to Ramp Bypass Currents to Accelerate Switching Speed and Reduce Ripple8,581,5192013/11/12ICSA light-emitting diode (LED) driver provides faster rise and fall times for LED current to reduce image sticking and other interference. A standard DC-DC converter provides a sum current that is slowly ramped up and down by a bypass current digital-to-analog converter (DAC). A digital value to the bypass current DAC is ramped up or down before an LED current is turned on or off. When the LED current is turned on, current is shifted from a bypass path to a path through the LED, maintaining a constant sum current from the DC-DC converter. When a different LED is turned on, current is shifted from one LED's path to the other LED's path. Separate LED current DAC's in each LED path and in the bypass path can share the sum current with digital precision. Using a single DAC for the sum current and switches in each path reduces cost.
223Single-Power-Transistor Battery-Charging Circuit Using Voltage-Boosted Clock8,643,3372014/02/04ICSA charge/discharge protection circuit protects a battery from inadvertent shorting on a charger node that can connect to a charger or to a power supply of a portable electronic device. A single n-channel power transistor has a gate that controls a channel between the battery and the charger node. The gate is connected to the charger node by a gate-coupling transistor to turn off the power transistor, providing battery isolation. The gate is driven by a voltage-boosted clock through a switch activated by an enable signal. The enable signal also activates a grounding transistor to ground a gate of the gate-coupling transistor. A comparator compares voltages of the charger and battery nodes, and the compare output is latched to generate the enable signal. An inverse enable signal activates a second switch that drives the voltage-boosted clock to the gate of the gate-coupling transistor to turn off the power transistor.
224Interchangeable Zoom Lens Actuator8,428,4512013/04/23IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an optical module that includes interchangeable lenses to adjust a zoom level of the optical module.
225Omni reflective optics for wide angle emission LED light bulb8,672,5122014/03/18IOTSENA structure is provided to create an efficient light pattern conversion from a narrow angular light beam pattern of a light emitting source to a wide angle light intensity distribution for an omnidirectional lighting assembly. A heat conductive substrate includes an LED array with at least one central and at least one surrounding LED. A hollow light diverting component is positioned over the LED array; a central LED is within the hollow component while surrounding LEDs are positioned outside. Light emitted by the central LED is reflected off inner surfaces of the hollow component to be discharged from an upper opening. The outer component surface is configured to reflect light from the surrounding LEDs in azimuthal and circumferential directions towards a region below the upper opening. In this manner, plural LEDs are used to form a wide angle emission pattern suitable for use in conventional light bulb replacement devices.
226Lighting device8,629,4662014/01/14ICSThis invention discloses a lighting device for providing an illumination with enhanced color uniformity. The lighting device includes a light generating element adjacent a substrate and configured to produce light having wavelengths substantially within a first wavelength range; a transparent frame attached to the substrate, surrounding the transparent frame; a wavelength converting layer for converting a portion of the light produced by the light generating element into light having wavelengths within a second wavelength range, substantially covering the light emitting surface and at least part of the transparent frame; and a scattering frame configured to substantially scatter light that travels therein, covering a portion of the light emitting surface around periphery thereof to thereby receive a portion of the light leaving the wavelength converting layer around the periphery of the light emitting area. Light components in said portion of the light are substantially mixed in the scattering frame.
227High isolation single lambda antenna for dual communication systems9,088,0732015/07/21IOTSENAn antenna system includes an antenna element having two antenna feeds and a shared connection to a ground plane. A first antenna portion has a first resonant frequency length of at least one first wavelength formed from a first feed together with the shared ground connection. A second antenna portion has a second resonant frequency length formed from a second feed together with the shared ground connection. First and second slots are respectively positioned between the shared ground connection and the respective first and second feeds such that the slots create inductances. At least a portion of the ground plane is located directly beneath at least a portion of the first and second slots. The first and second slot inductances together with the ground plane capacitances form one or more filter components to isolate the first and second resonant frequencies in the antenna element.
228Systems and methods for broadcast encryption optimization and scalability8,483,3902013/07/09AIBDA content distribution method with broadcast encryption, comprising: executing a setup process, comprising: generating public domain parameters, generating a server secret, and generating one or more client private keys, one for each content receiving client; executing an encryption process, comprising: generating a cipher text using the server secret, a subscriber set, and a randomness, the cipher text being constant and independent of total number of content receiving clients in a distribution network, generating a plain text using the server secret and the randomness, encrypting an original content into an encrypted content using the plain text; distributing the client private keys to the content receiving clients; distributing the cipher text to the content receiving clients; broadcasting the encrypted content through the distribution network; and executing a decryption process on the encrypted content by each of the content receiving clients in the distribution network.
229Adjusting a brightness level of a side emitting backlight display device using light spreading profiles9,129,5652015/09/08IOTSENEmbodiments of methods, systems, or apparatuses relating to adjusting a brightness level of at least one luminescent body disposed, at least in part, on a side emitting backlight display device are disclosed. In a particular embodiment, for example, one or more values representing a light spreading profile for a particular luminescent body may be accessed. A process, system, or apparatus may adjust a brightness of a particular luminescent body by adjusting one or more brightness values associated with that particular luminescent body based, at least in part, on the accessed values.
230Reduced Residual Offset Sigma Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) with Chopper Timing at End of Integrating Phase before Trailing Edge8,471,7442013/06/25ICSAn analog-to-digital converter (ADC) has a chopper-stabilized sigma-delta modulator (SDM). The SDM uses switched-capacitor integrators to sample, hold, and integrate an analog input in response to non-overlapping multi-phase clocks. Chopper multipliers are inserted on the inputs and outputs of an op amp in a first stage integrator. The chopper multipliers swap or pass through differential inputs in response to non-overlapping chopper clocks. A master clock operating at a frequency of the multi-phase clocks is divided down to trigger generation of the chopper clocks. Delay lines ensure that the edges of the chopper clocks occur before the edges of the multi-phase clocks. The chopper multipliers have already switched and are thus stable when multi-phase clocks change so charge injection at switches controlled by the multi-phase clocks is not immediately modulated by chopper multipliers. This clock timing increases the time available to respond to charge injection at switches improving linearity.
231Configurable Cascading Sigma Delta Analog-to Digital Converter (ADC) for Adjusting Power and Performance8,421,6602013/04/16ICSA cascaded sigma-delta modulator has several modulator loops that have one or two sets of integrators, summers, and scalers, and a quantizer that generates a loop output. Input muxes to each loop select either an overall input or the loop output from a prior loop, allowing the modulator loops to be cascaded in series or to operate separately. Filter-configuring muxes after each modulator loop select either that loop's output or a loop output from any prior loop, or a zero. Each filter-configuring mux drives an input to a modified CIC filter. The modified CIC filter has an initial delay stage that receives the first filter-configuring mux output, and successive integrator stages that each receives a successive filter-configuring mux output. The modified CIC filter is a combination of a digital transform filter and a Cascaded-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter. Modulator loops are powered down for lower-performance configurations or cascaded together for higher-performance configurations.
232Parallel pipelined calculation of two calibration values during the prior conversion cycle in a successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC)8,421,6582013/04/16ICSA Successive-Approximation Register Analog-to-Digital Converter (SAR-ADC) predicts compensation values for use in a future cycle. A compensation value is applied to capacitors in a calibration Y-side capacitor array to compensate for capacitance errors in a binary-weighted X-side capacitor array. Two compute engines pre-calculate predicted-0 and predicted-1 compensation values for a next bit to be converted. At the end of the current cycle when the comparator determines the current bit, the comparator also controls a mux to select one of the two predicted compensation values. Thus the compensation value is available at the beginning of the next bit's cycle, eliminating a long calculation delay. The compensation value for the first bit to be converted, such as the MSB, is calculated during calibration. Compensation values for other bits are data-dependent. Calibration values are accumulated during calibration to generate the first conversion compensation value for the first bit to be converted.
233Blood pressure measuring device and method of calibrating thereof9,204,8092015/12/08IOTSENThe present invention is a blood pressure measuring device comprising an optical sensing unit adapted for detecting optical pulses at a plurality of locations on an external surface of a user. The device also comprises a processing unit coupled to the optical sensing unit for determining an optimal location from the plurality of locations based on the detected optical pulses and a pressure sensing unit adapted for detecting a pressure pulse of the user at a location of measurement. The present invention also discloses a method of measuring a blood pressure of a user using a blood pressure measurement device. The advantage of the present invention is that by using an optical sensing unit to locate the artery of the user, or to compensate the misalignment from the artery, the blood pressure is more accurately determined. With the calibration method, the deficient cuff calibration can be waived in certain circumstances.
234Method for summarizing video and displaying the summary in three-dimensional scenes8,719,6872014/05/06AIBDA computer-implementable method for creating a summary video with depth information, comprising: recognizing moving objects from the input original video; generating an animated moving object cutout for each of the recognized moving objects by duplicating and stacking successive frames in the input original video containing images of the respective moving object; constructing a scene background by using texture of scenes in the input original video and estimating any missing portion; rendering a Dynamic 3D Scene by using depth information of foreground objects in the input original video and the scene background to create a three-dimensional scene and overlaying the animated moving object cutouts on to the three-dimensional scene according to their respective longitude, latitude, and depth locations in the three-dimensional scene; and synthesizing the summary video, by using the Dynamic 3D Scene.
235Mount-free tire pressure monitoring system8,723,6612014/05/13ICSA tire pressure monitoring sensor moveable inside a tire includes a housing holding a pressure sensing/transmitting unit, one or more batteries and an antenna for transmitting a signal indicating interior tire pressure. In one embodiment, the components are assembled within the housing such that the center of gravity is along a housing geometric center. During tire rotation, the monitor independently rotates within the tire and is particularly useful for slow-rotating tires, such as those used in gantry systems. Alternatively, the pressure monitoring sensor components are assembled within the housing such that the center of gravity is offset from a housing geometric center. Centripetal force generated during tire rotation causes the monitor to rotate with the tire itself and is useful for faster-rotating tires, such as motor vehicle tires. A tire pressure monitoring system includes the monitor and a receiver positioned outside the tire for receiving the monitoring signals.
236System and method for content distribution with broadcast encryption8,667,2722014/03/04AIBDA content distribution method with broadcast encryption, comprising an encryption process that includes the computation of a ciphertext using a differential ciphertext generation method. The ciphertext needs to be recomputed whenever the subscriber set changes. The differential ciphertext generation method computes the new ciphertext by reusing previously preserved computational results of a previous ciphertext, thereby improving the efficiency of the system. A content distribution method with broadcast encryption also comprises a decryption process that includes the reconstruction of the encryption secret that is used for decrypting the encrypted content. A wide window point addition method is used in the encryption secret reconstruction. The wide window point addition method reuses previously preserved computational results of group-divided point additions of public parameters, thereby improving the efficiency of the system. A clustering solution with multiple instances of key server and entitlement server allows the expansion of user population in the content distribution network.
237Multi-dimensional image detection apparatus9,507,4622016/11/29IOTSENAccording to the present invention, a multi-dimensional image detection apparatus includes a touch surface, at least one two-vision image sensing module located proximally to the touch surface, and a control module coupled to the image sensing module. The multiple-dimensional image detection apparatus can detect a foreign object's image with at least two different dimensional modes. A method of multiple-dimensional image detection is also disclosed by reading the image data acquired by the image sensing module and comparing with a pre-stored background data to determine detecting the foreign object under a predetermined dimensional mode.
238Adaptive Block-size Transform using LLMICT8,719,3212014/05/06AIBDThe LLMICT transform matrices are orthogonal, hence their inverses are their transpose. The LLMICT transform matrices are integer matrices, which can be implemented with high precision eliminating the drift error in video coding. The fast algorithms for the LLMICT transform are found, thus allowing a lower requirement on computation hardware. The LLMICT is also found to have high transform coding gain due to its similarity to the DCT.
239Polarization beam splitters for image projection apparatus8,888,2902014/11/18IOTSENA polarization beam splitter includes at least six prisms assembled together to form a single solid components. At least one diagonal interface is formed by a combination of two or more prism surfaces. The solid polarization beam splitter component has at least four light entrance/exit surfaces with at least one of the light entrance/exit surfaces including a step. At least one of the prisms has a non-triangular cross-sectional shape. At least one surface of a prism that forms a portion of the diagonal interface has a polarization beam splitting material disposed thereon resulting in a diagonal interface that includes a polarization beam splitting material. The polarization beam splitter can be incorporated into various image projection apparatus including 2D, multiple image, and 3D projection apparatuses.
240Increased surface area electrical contacts for microelectronic packages8,772,9302014/07/08ICSA multilayer microelectronic device package includes one or more vertical electrical contacts. At least one semiconductor material layer is provided having one or more electrical devices fabricated therein. An electrical contact pad can be formed on or in the semiconductor material layer. Another material layer is positioned adjacent to the semiconductor material layer and includes a conductive material stud embedded in or bonded to the layer. A via is formed through at least a portion of the semiconductor material layer and the electrical contact pad and into the adjacent layer conducting material stud. The via is constructed such that the via tip terminates within the conducting material stud, exposing the conducting material. A metallization layer is disposed in the via such that the metallization layer contacts both the electrical contact pad and the conducting material stud exposed by the via tip.
241Halo reduction in frame-rate-conversion using hybrid bi-directional motion vectors for occlusion/disocclusion detection9,148,6222015/09/29ICSA frame-rate converter reduces halo artifacts along edges of moving objects. Halo artifacts occur on interpolated frames where a moving object covers and uncovers pixels along its edges. Motion estimation among three original frames produces hybrid direction motion vectors that are bi-directional for background and objects, but are unidirectional for covered and uncovered regions, since motion vectors with large matching errors are deleted. Covered regions in the interpolated frame are detected as intersecting only a forward but no backward hybrid motion vector. Bi-directional motion estimation from the hybrid motion vectors of two original frames produces refined motion vectors for the interpolated frame. Refined motion vectors in the covered regions are deleted and replaced with hybrid motion vectors from the original frames. Hybrid motion vectors from the original frames are assigned to the critical covered regions rather than using interpolated vectors in the covered regions, reducing halo artifacts.
242CMOS Temperature Sensor with Sensitivity Set by Current-Mirror and Resistor Ratios without Limiting DC Bias8,864,3772014/10/21ICSAn on-chip temperature sensor circuit can be implemented in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process using PNP transistors. A pair of transistors have collector currents that are sensitive to voltage, both directly and due to saturation currents. A scaling resistor connects to the emitter of one transistor and its voltage compared to the other transistor's emitter voltage by an error amplifier that generates a bias voltage to current sources that are proportional to absolute temperature since the saturation current sensitivity is subtracted out. The current is mirrored to sink current through a multiplier resistor from an output. An amplifier connected across the multiplier resistor compares a reference voltage to set the DC bias independent of temperature sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity is proportional to the ratio of the multiplier resistor and the scaling resistor, and is multiplied by a mirroring factor. A differential output may also be provided.
243Output Current Estimation for an Isolated Flyback Converter with Variable Switching Frequency Control and Duty Cycle Adjustment for Both PWM and PFM Modes8,780,5902014/07/15ICSA fly-back power converter has a current-estimating control loop that senses the primary output current in a transformer to control the secondary output. A primary-side control circuit switches primary current through the transformer on and off. A discharge time when a secondary current through an auxiliary winding of the transformer is flowing is generated by sampling a voltage divider on an auxiliary loop for a knee-point. A normalized duty cycle is calculated by multiplying the discharge time by a current that is proportional to the switching frequency and comparing to a sawtooth signal having the switching frequency. The peak of a primary-side voltage is sensed from the primary current loop and converted to a current and multiplied by the normalized duty cycle to generate an estimated current. An error amp compares the estimated current to a reference to adjust the oscillator frequency and peak current to control primary switching.
244Signature detection and timing offset estimation8,837,3122014/09/16COMBias introduced by down-sampling may be eliminated, or significantly reduced, by the present embodiments. Methods and apparatuses are described for use in wireless communication systems including LTE and other mobile data systems. The method includes identifying a timing offset estimation bias caused by a misalignment between samples and a zero-offset point of a preamble signature.
245False alarm reduction with search windowing and peak suppression9,001,6782015/04/07COMThe present embodiments are directed to systems and methods for detecting random access channel requests, while excluding false random access signals using search windowing and distance-based peak suppression techniques. The present embodiments additionally include further techniques for suppression of fake random access signals, including amplitude thresholds and preamble-based signal exclusion. Beneficially, the present embodiments significantly reduce the false alarm rate, while maintaining a low hardware complexity requirements. In some embodiments, worst-case false alarm rates can be reduced from as much as 20% down to nearly 0.1%.
246Multiple surface integrated devices on low resistivity substrates8,907,2272014/12/09ICSThe present invention relates to a device with portions of the device on plural substrate surfaces. The device includes a low resistivity substrate having first and second surfaces with a first electrically-conductive device component disposed over a first surface. An intermediate electrically-insulating layer may be disposed between the electrically-conductive component and the low resistivity substrate. A second electrically-conductive component is disposed over the second surface of the low resistivity substrate. A cavity formed in the low resistivity substrate is at least partially filled with a high resistivity material. One or more electrically-conducting pathways are formed in the high resistivity material electrically connecting the first electrically conductive component and the second electrically-conductive component to form a device. Exemplary devices include inductors, capacitors, antennas and active or passive devices incorporating such devices. Vertically integrated device systems can be formed using the device.
247Low cost backside illuminated CMOS image sensor package with high integration8,823,1262014/09/02ICSThis invention discloses a backside illuminated image sensor without the need to involve a mechanical grinding process or a chemical-mechanical planarization process in fabrication, and a fabricating method thereof. In one embodiment, an image sensor comprises a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of light sensing elements in the semiconductor substrate, and a cavity formed in the semiconductor substrate. The light sensing elements are arranged in a substantially planar manner. The cavity has a base surface overlying the light sensing elements. The presence of the cavity allows the image to reach the light sensing elements through the cavity base surface. The cavity can be fabricated by etching the semiconductor substrate. Agitation may also be used when carrying out the etching.
248Structured light for touch or gesture detection9,092,0902015/07/28IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to optical projection and image detection to detect touch or gesture action.
249Compact imaging device8,736,9882014/05/27IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging device including an epoxy reservoir and a number of features to facilitate alignment of components during assembly of the imaging device.
250Wafer-level device packaging9,117,7152015/08/25ICSThe present invention relates to a semiconductor device packaged at the wafer level such that an entire packaged device is formed prior to separation of individual devices. The semiconductor device package includes a semiconductor chip having one or more bonding pads associated with the chip and a protective layer bonded over the semiconductor chip. An insulation layer is positioned on at least side edges and a lower surface of the semiconductor chip. Interconnection/bump metallization is positioned adjacent one or more side edges of the semiconductor chip and is electrically connected to at least one bonding pad. A compact image sensor package can be formed that is vertically integrated with a digital signal processor and memory chip along with lenses and a protective cover.
251Method for optimizing electrodeposition process of a plurality of vias in wafer9,075,9412015/07/07ICSThe presently claimed invention provides a method for optimizing an electrodeposition process of a plurality of vias in a wafer. Instead of simulating a large number of via on the wafer for via filling, a representative via is selected with the maximum value of critical factor, which is a function of process parameters. The filling of the representative via is simulated with different sampling points to find out the filling goodness in order to find out the optimized process windows of process parameters. An optimizer is also disclosed, which either provides sampling points or reduces sampling points under artificial neural network method. Calculation of filling goodness is used for evaluating via filling quality and further comparing among via fillings simulated at different sampling points. Consequently, the method of present invention is able to shorten the simulation time for via filling as well as provide a process window with high accuracy.
252Phosphor ink composition8,785,2222014/07/22IOTSENThe present invention provides phosphor inks configured to achieve high efficiency in converting LED light from one wavelength to another. The phosphor ink composition for deposition on an LED device comprises a phosphor component having nano-phosphor particles on the order of 100 to 1000 nanometers, and a curable resin component. In particular, the nano-phosphor particles are uniformly dispersed throughout the ink composition. The nano-phosphor particles may be formed by a size reduction process carried out on larger phosphor particles on the order of 1 to 50 micrometers. Preferably, the size reduction process is based on solvent wet milling. Methods for preparing the phosphor inks based on forming the nano-phosphor particles from larger particles by solvent wet milling are also provided.
253Apparatus, system, and method for temporal domain hole filling based on background modeling for view synthesis9,235,8792016/01/12AIBDEmbodiments of apparatuses, systems, and methods for a temporal hole filling are described. Specifically, an embodiment of the present invention may include a depth-based hole filling process that includes a background modeling technique (SGM). Beneficially, in such an embodiment, holes in the synthesized view may be filled effectively and efficiently.
254Scale Changing Detection and Scaling Ratio Determination by Using Motion Information9,087,3782015/07/21AIBDThis invention discloses a method for object tracking, including determination of an area scaling ratio of the object in a video image sequence. In one embodiment, a centroid of the object is determined. One or more directed straight lines are selected, each passing through the centroid, extending from an end of the object's boundary to an opposite end thereof, and having a direction that is upward. A length scaling ratio for each directed straight line is determined by: determining a motion vector for each selected pixel on the line; computing a scalar component of the motion vector projected onto the line; estimating a change of the line's length according to the scalar components obtained for all pixels; and determining the length scaling ratio according to the change of the line's length. The area scaling ratio is computed based on the length scaling ratios for all directed straight lines.
255Method and system for rapid three-dimensional shape measurement9,030,4702015/05/12IOTSENThe present invention discloses a non-contact measurement system for measuring the three-dimensional (3D) shape of an object rapidly by using a unique light pattern and the implementation method thereof. The system comprises a pattern generation unit, a projection unit, a sensing unit and a processing unit. The pattern generation unit generates an enhanced color sequence according to predetermined rules. The sensing unit of the system comprises a hybrid sensor which can be operated in fast mode or precise mode. A dedicated decoding method for the present invention is also disclosed.
256Op-Amp Sharing by Swapping Trans-Conductance Cells8,643,4322014/02/04ICSA two-stage op amp has a transconductance cell in a second stage modified to match a transconductance cell in a first stage. A transconductance swap network is inserted between transconductance cells and trans-impedance cells, such as current-steering networks, current mirrors, or drivers connected to the transconductance cells. The transconductance swap network directly connects the first transconductance cell to the first stage trans-impedance cell during a second clock phase, but crosses-over the first transconductance cell to the second-stage trans-impedance cell during a first clock phase. A first switched-capacitor network drives the gates of differential transistors in the first transconductance cell by alternately sampling an input and feedback, and equalizing to reset inputs. A second first switched-capacitor network drives differential transistors in the second transconductance cell, but during opposite clock phases. Two independent inputs are sampled by the switched-capacitor networks and alternately amplified by swapping connections within the shared op amp.
257Digital-to-analog converter (DAC) current cell with shadow differential transistors for output impedance compensation8,643,5202014/02/04ICSAn equalized-impedance shadowed current cell can be arrayed in a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) or other converters or applications. The Equalized-impedance shadowed current cell has primary differential transistors in parallel with shadow differential transistors that have gates driven inversely to gates of the primary differential transistors. A shadow current from the shadow differential transistors is much smaller than a primary current switched by the primary differential transistors. Cell current is not switched off to zero but to the shadow current. The ON state and OFF state impedances of the current cell may be matched during circuit design so that the impedance is the same regardless of digital input values. The Width and Length of the shadow differential transistors are adjusted so that overall output impedances for the ON and OFF states of the current cell are matched. Since output impedance is input code independent, high-speed performance is improved.
258Apparatus, system, and method for multi-patch based super-resolution from an image8,675,9992014/03/18ICSEmbodiments of the present invention include apparatuses, systems and methods for multi-patch based super-resolution from a single video frame. Such embodiments include a scale-invariant self-similarity (SiSS) based super-resolution method. Instead of searching HR examples in a database or in LR image, the present embodiments may select the patches according to the SiSS characteristics of the patch itself, so that the computational complexity of the method may be reduced because there is not any search involved. To solve the problem of lack of relevant examples in natural images, the present embodiments may employ multi-shaped and multi-sized patches in HR image reconstruction. Additionally, embodiments may include steps for a hybrid weighing method for suppressing artifacts. Advantageously, certain embodiments of the method may be 10˜1,000 times faster than the example based SR approaches using patch searching and can achieve comparable HR image quality.
259Apparatus, system, and method for peer group formation for mobile devices by proximity sensing9,055,3902015/06/09AIBDThe present invention includes apparatuses, systems, and methods for peer group formation for mobile devices by proximity sensing. The described embodiments further include methods, systems, and apparatuses configured to easily establish an ad-hoc peer network in which each of the devices in the network automatically discovers and is connected to other devices in the network upon establishing a connection with at least one member of the ad-hoc network. The connection is established using a tap of NFC devices in the two wireless devices. Further, the wireless devices in the ad-hoc network may be divided into logical peer groups.
260Multi-drive Mechanism Lens Actuator9,002,1882015/04/07IOTSENSubject matter disclosed herein may relate to lens actuators used, for example, in auto-focus and/or vibration compensation systems of digital cameras.
261ESD power clamp using a low-voltage transistor to clamp a high-voltage supply in a mixed-voltage chip8,643,9882014/02/04ICSAn electro-static-discharge (ESD) protection circuit is a power clamp between a high-voltage power supply VDDH and a ground. The power clamp protects high-voltage transistors in a first core and low-voltage transistors in a second core using a low-voltage clamp transistor. The low-voltage transistors have lower power-supply and snap-back voltages than the high-voltage transistors. Trigger circuits are triggered when an ESD pulse is detected on VDDH. One trigger circuit enables a gate of the low-voltage clamp transistor. A series of diodes connected between VDDH and a drain of the clamp transistor prevents latch up or snap-back during normal operation. During an ESD pulse, the series of diodes is briefly bypassed by a p-channel bypass transistor when a second trigger circuit activates an initial trigger transistor which pulses the gate of the p-channel bypass transistor low for a period of time set by an R-C network in the second trigger circuit.
262Adaptive unified performance management (AUPM) with root cause and/or severity analysis for broadband wireless access networks9,246,7472016/01/26COMSystems and methods which provide an adaptive unified performance management (AUPM) framework for interacting with disparate network elements using techniques adaptive to operational conditions to provide network performance adaptive root cause analysis (ARCA) are shown. An AUPM framework of embodiments of the invention implements a proxy based architecture in which a plurality of proxies are utilized to connect to and perform data communication with the disparate network elements. Centralized performance management is in communication with the proxies to obtain and unify network element data for performance monitoring, alarm reporting, and/or root cause analysis. The performance monitoring, alarm reporting, and root cause analysis provided by centralized performance management of embodiments herein implements adaptive cluster-based analysis to provide robust operation adapted to accommodate various operational scenarios, such as may include time varying conditions and learning based configuration.
263High Reliability High Voltage Vertical LED Arrays8,558,2542013/10/15IOTSENImproved arrays of high voltage vertical-emitting LEDs that generate substantially lower heat than conventional LED arrays are provided. In particular, the present invention provides an array of high-voltage vertical LEDs each of which includes a first electrode positioned on a light-emitting face and a second electrode. A conductive matrix surrounds each LED and electrically communicates with each of the electrodes while an electrically-insulating material is positioned between adjacent diodes such that a first electrical current path is defined between the second and first electrodes through each diode. An isolating material is positioned in the conductive matrix between adjacent LEDs to isolate the adjacent second electrodes from one another. Further positioned between adjacent diodes is a material capable of permanently lowering its resistance to provide an alternate electrical pathway following a failure of an individual LED. High reliability high voltage vertical LED arrays are thereby provided.
264Self-starting transistor-only full-wave rectifier for on-chip AC-DC conversion8,964,4362015/02/24ICSA transistor-based full-wave bridge rectifier is suitable for low A.C. input voltages such as received by a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) device. Voltage drops due to bridge diodes are avoided. Four p-channel transistors are arranged in a bridge across the A.C. inputs to produce an internal power voltage. A comparator receives the A.C. input and controls timing of voltage boost drivers that alternately drive gates of the four p-channel transistors with voltages boosted higher than the peak A.C. voltage. Four diode-connected transistors are connected in parallel with the four p-channel bridge transistors to conduct during initial start-up before the comparator and boost drivers operate. Substrates are connected to the power voltage on the power-voltage half of the bridge and to the A.C. inputs on the ground half of the bridge to fully shut off transistors, preventing reverse current flow. The transistor bridge can be integrated onto system chips.
265Diode-less full-wave rectifier for low-power on-chip AC-DC conversion8,797,7762014/08/05ICSA bridge rectifier operates on low A.C. input voltages such as received by a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) device. Voltage drops due to bridge diodes are avoided. Four p-channel transistors are arranged in a transistor bridge across the A.C. inputs to produce an internal power voltage. Another four diode-connected transistors form a start-up diode bridge that generates a comparator power voltage and a reference ground. The start-up diode bridge operates even during initial start-up before the comparator and boost drivers operate. A comparator receives the A.C. input and controls timing of voltage boost drivers that alternately drive gates of the four p-channel transistors in the transistor bridge with voltages boosted higher than the peak A.C. voltage. Substrates are connected to the power voltage on the power-voltage half of the bridge and to the A.C. inputs on the ground half of the bridge to fully shut off transistors, preventing reverse current flow.
266Through-silicon via structure with patterned surface, patterned sidewall and local isolation8,791,5782014/07/29ICSThis invention discloses a through-silicon via (TSV) structure for providing an electrical path between a first-side surface and a second-side surface of a silicon chip, and a method for fabricating the structure. In one embodiment, the TSV structure comprises a via penetrated through the chip from the first-side surface to the second-side surface, providing a first end on the first-side surface and a second end on the second-side surface. A local isolation layer is deposited on the via's sidewall and on a portion of the first-side surface surrounding the first end. The TSV structure further comprises a plurality of substantially closely-packed microstructures arranged to form a substantially non-random pattern and fabricated on at least the portion of the first-side surface covered by the local isolation layer for promoting adhesion of the local isolation layer to the chip. A majority of the microstructures has a depth of at least 1 µm.
267Method and system for performing data transfer with a flash storage medium9,098,4912015/08/04ICSThis invention discloses a method for data transfer between a host memory and a flash memory module through direct memory access (DMA), and a related data-transfer subsystem. In one embodiment, the subsystem comprises a DMA controller, a flash-memory controller, a data buffer for buffering data transferred between the DMA controller and the flash-memory controller, and a status-register group for storing a current status of the data buffer. The DMA controller and the flash-memory controller are configured such that both of them are allowed to update the current status and to detect a change of the current status during the data transfer, so that a substantial part of the data transfer's process is executed through direct interaction between the DMA controller and the flash-memory controller without involving a central processing unit. The subsystem may further comprise a command storing unit for storing command packages for execution by the flash-memory controller.
268Systems and methods for image depth map generation9,299,1522016/03/29AIBDSystems and methods which provide generation of image depth maps which more accurately represent the local depth discontinuity within images through use of image global depth maps adapted based upon image global motion and/or localized depth analysis utilizing relative relationships of attributes across depth discontinuities in the image are disclosed. Embodiments utilize a full global depth map which is larger than or equal to the image being converted in order to accommodate image global motion, in generating an image global depth map. In operation according to embodiments, an image global depth map is identified within the full global depth map, such as based upon global motion within the image. Localized depth analysis, using pixel attribute relative relationships, is applied with respect to the image global depth map according to embodiments to generate an image depth map which more accurately reflects the local depth discontinuities within the image.
269Boundary-based high resolution depth mapping8,891,9052014/11/18AIBDSystems and methods which provide generation of high resolution depth maps from low resolution depth information using boundary-based processing techniques are disclosed. Boundary-based depth processing provided by embodiments implements boundary detection and boundary-based interpolation algorithms for providing high resolution depth information from low resolution depth information and high resolution image information. Boundary detection algorithms are implemented according to embodiments to detect object boundaries (e.g., depth discontinuities), where the low resolution depth samples are typically inaccurate and generally in need of refining. Boundary-based interpolation algorithms are implemented according to embodiments of the invention to refine intermediate upsampled depth information (e.g., spatially interpolated low resolution depth information), using the boundary information provided by a boundary detection algorithm, and provide high resolution depth information.
270Anonymous Personal Content Access with Content Bridge8,813,2062014/08/19CCTAn online content publishing and consumption environment can be modeled such that communities of content consumers (users), such as educational institutes and libraries, are categorized as Content Brokers; content providers, such as book, music, and multimedia publishers, and news sources, are categorized as Content Providers; and a Content Bridge, a standalone component providing the functionalities of the presently claimed invention in the online content publishing and consumption environment. The Content Bridge allows a simpler and loosely-coupled integration with lowered integration cost and effort, as the Content Broker is required to integrate once only with the Content Bridge instead of having to integrate individually with every Content Provider.
271Perceptual bias level estimation for hand-drawn sketches in sketch-photo matching9,104,9422015/08/11AIBDThis invention, which relates to retrieving an object from a video or a photo where the object matches a hand-drawn sketch, discloses a method for automatically estimating a perceptual bias level with respect to a feature of the sketch. The method allows estimation based on the sketch alone without involving an extra database. In one embodiment, the method comprises using an expectation-maximization tensor voting (EMTV) method to analyze a statistical distribution of the feature. The statistical distribution is analyzed by forming an objective function having the statistical distribution's information parameterized by the perceptual bias level, and then maximizing the objective function according to a set of iterative update rules. In another embodiment, the method for automatically estimating a perceptual bias level is incorporated into a method for retrieving one or more objects from an image or video database where the one or more objects match a hand-drawn sketch.
272Interchangeable Zoom Lens Actuator With Auto-Focus Adjustment8,737,8302014/05/27IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an optical module that includes interchangeable lenses to adjust a zoom level or focus of the optical module.
273Phase-to-amplitude converter for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) with reduced AND and reconstructed ADD logic arrays9,021,0022015/04/28ICSA sine wave generator for a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) converts a digital phase input into a digital sine wave output. Sine values and slopes are stored in read-only memory (ROM) for coarse upper phase bits in a first quadrant. A quadrant folder and phase splitter reflects and inverts values from the first quadrant to generate amplitudes for all four quadrants. Each sine value and slope is stored for a range of lower phase bits. A Delta bit separates upper and lower phase bits. Delta conditionally inverts the lower phase bits, the sine value, and the final polarity. A reduced AND logic array multiplies the slope by the conditionally inverted lower phase bits. A reconstructed ADD logic array then adds the conditionally inverted sine value. The conditionally inverted polarity is added to generate the final sine value. Sine generation logic is streamlined with conditional inversion based on the Delta bit.
274DC offset cancellation for a multi-stage amplifier8,829,9892014/09/09COMThis invention provides a multi-stage amplifier incorporating DC offset cancellation. The amplifier has a plurality of series-connected gain stages each of which comprises a differential amplifier unit generating a pair of differential outputs from a pair of differential inputs. In particular, a trailing stage in the plurality of gain stages comprises a digital DC offset cancellation module configured to compensate for a DC offset of the trailing stage's differential amplifier unit. The digital DC offset cancellation module comprises a comparator coupled to the pair of differential outputs of the trailing stage's differential amplifier unit for receiving such differential outputs as inputs for the comparator. Preferably, the comparator has an inherent DC offset that is substantially small. It is preferable that a non-trailing stage of the amplifier comprises an analog DC offset cancellation module for compensating for a DC offset of the non-trailing stage.
275Lens positioning structure for zoom lens9,465,2002016/10/11IOTSENAn apparatus for adjusting a zoom lens that includes a mechanical structure having a plurality of lens assemblies and an actuator to adjust a zoom level or focus of the apparatus.
276Antennas using over-coupling for wide-band operation9,077,0872015/07/07COMSystems and methods in which antenna system configurations use over-coupling between a plurality of antenna elements for effectively providing wide-band operation are shown. Such over-coupling comprises a multiple antenna element configuration in which adaptation to one antenna element (e.g., an influencing antenna element) results in substantial operational frequency band adaptation to a second antenna element (e.g., a respondent antenna element). Over-coupling results in a frequency split at the second antenna, whereby the resonate frequency of the antenna element is split into a plurality of frequency bands. By implementing such frequency splitting with respect to otherwise narrow band antenna elements, the over-coupled antenna system may be made to effectively provide wide-band operation.
277Low Supply Voltage Bandgap Reference Circuit and Method9,086,7062015/07/21ICSA circuit and method for a bandgap voltage reference operating at 1 volt or below is disclosed, wherein the operational amplifier (A1) drives resistors (R2, R3) only so that both the flicker noise contribution and the process sensitivity due to the conventional metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices used as a current mirror within the proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) loop are eliminated. Two symmetric resistive divider pairs formed by (R1A/R1B, R2A/R2B) are inserted to scale down both the base-emitter voltages (VEB1, VEB2) of bipolar transistors (Q1, Q2) and the PTAT current (IPTAT) so that an output reference voltage (VREF) becomes scalable. Proper bias currents through transistors (M3, M4), which are used to bias (Q1, Q2) and (R1A/R1B, R2A/R2B) respectively, are produced by an additional V-I converter (319) using VREF itself, resulting in a final process, voltage and temperature (PVT) insensitive output reference voltage.
278Raman Signal Detection and Analysing System and a Method Thereof8,879,0602014/11/04IOTSENA Raman signal detection and analyzing system and a method thereof are disclosed. The Raman signal is generated by emitting an excitation light to a sample. The Raman signal is then modulated by passing through a plurality of optical filter and modulator. The resulting modulated Raman signal comprises two orthogonal components, which intensities are to be computed based on the first harmonic of said modulated Raman signal. The content of a specific analyte within the sample can then be determined based on the ratio of the intensities of the two components.
279Amplitude-shift-keying (ASK) envelope detector and demodulation circuits8,711,9822014/04/29ICSAn envelope detector receives an input that is an Amplitude-Modulated (AM) or Amplitude-Shift-Keying (ASK) coded signal. Each channel has a sample switch and a diode that charge an internal sampling capacitor. A hold switch connects the internal sampling capacitor to a summing output capacitor or to a post-processing circuit. A reset switch discharges the internal sampling capacitor after each sample. Two or more channels may be time multiplexed to sample alternate cycles of the input, and then their outputs combined by the summing output capacitor or by the post-processing circuit. The diodes may be reversed to detect the negative envelope rather than the positive envelope. Clocks for the switches may be generated from the input, or may be from a separate clock source. Since the sampling window is open for a whole input cycle, the clock source is insensitive to phase error.
280Methods and device for sensing a person's pulse in traditional chinese medicine9,445,7322016/09/20IOTSENThis invention discloses a pulse-sensing device and methods for pulse sensing. In one embodiment, the device includes a robotic finger comprising a humanoid-finger structure, and an actuating-force transferring member for transferring an actuating force to the structure at an actuation point thereon and along an actuation direction. One end of the structure is pivotally mounted to a fulcrum and another end has a sensing area. The robotic finger is configured such that, when the sensing area contacts a person's wrist, a first perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to a first line is substantially longer than a second perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to a second line, where the first line is a straight line passing through a sensing point of the sensing area and being substantially perpendicular to the sensing area, and the second line is a straight line passing through the actuation point and orienting along the actuation direction.
281High power dielectric carrier with accurate die attach layer9,196,6022015/11/24ICSA system for bonding a die to a high power dielectric carrier such as a ceramic dielectric core with double-sided conductive layers is described. In the system, the upper conductive layer has a first area whose surface has a first wettability. A second area that at least partially surrounds the first area has a surface with a second wettability that is greater than the first wettability. During bonding, an adhesive material bonding a chip to the substrate spreads among the first area by a downward force placed on the chip. Due to the difference in wettability, the adhesive material then spreads among the second area by a wetting force generated by the greater second wettability of the second area surface causing the chip to be drawn down until reaching a predetermined position. The predetermined position can be determined by substrate protrusions or substrate cavities.
282Partial CipherText Updates Using Variable-Length Segments Delineated by Pattern Matching and Encrypted by Fixed-Length Blocks9,237,0142016/01/12CCTA re-encryptor compares hashed digests of updated segments and original segments to located changed segments that must be re-encrypted. A new initialization vector is input to a block cipher engine for each changed segment. Since only changed segments need to be re-encrypted, transmission bandwidth to remote encrypted storage may be reduced. The amount of cipher text that is changed by a single update is reduced to a segment. Segments have a variable length and are bound by bits matching a segment delimiter. Each segment may have many fixed-length blocks that are encrypted by the block cipher engine with the same initialization vector for that segment. The segment delimiter is a randomly-generated word that is included with the initialization vectors in the metadata. Variable-length segments limit update disruption of the cipher text while fixed-length blocks are more efficiently encrypted. Combining segments and blocks provides for better re-encryption of updates.
283Method and Apparatus for Detecting a Preamble in a Received Signal8,831,1502014/09/09COMThis invention discloses a method and an apparatus for reducing false alarm rate in preamble detection due to discontinuities between successive symbols in a received signal. The invention is usable in, e.g., a LTE compliant system. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a filter for filtering the received signal to yield a filtered signal, and a correlator for correlating the filtered signal with a predetermined preamble. The apparatus further comprises a first multiplier for modifying the received signal before it is filtered, or a second multiplier for modifying the filtered signal before it is correlated, or both. The first multiplier multiplies the received signal with a first time-domain window function configured to substantially smooth discontinuities at symbol boundaries in the received signal. The second multiplier multiplies the filtered signal with a second time-domain window function configured to substantially suppress spikes present in the filtered signal around the symbol boundaries.
284Lighting device with omnidirectional light emission and efficient heat dissipation9,134,0122015/09/15IOTSENThis invention discloses a lighting device for omnidirectional light emission with efficient heat dissipation. In one embodiment, a lighting device comprises lighting modules circumferentially arranged such that generation of the omnidirectional light is allowable, and a supporting unit attached to each lighting module's heat-dissipating side for providing mechanical support. A space formed by minimally enclosing all the lighting modules includes a first polar opening, a second polar opening opposite thereto, and a ventilation channel between the two polar openings for enabling air flowing through the ventilation channel to carry away at least part of heat obtained from the heat-dissipating sides of the lighting modules to outside said space. A line-of-sight path between the two polar openings is identifiable, allowing a direct flow of air that advances through the ventilation channel between the two polar openings to be realizable, thereby promoting the carrying away of heat to outside said space.
285Electro-static-discharge (ESD) protection structure with stacked implant junction transistor and parallel resistor and diode paths to lower trigger voltage and raise holding volatge9,054,5212015/06/09ICSAn electro-static-discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a vertical NPN transistor with a floating p-type base created by a deep p-type implant under an N+ source region. The deep p-type implant may be an ESD implant in a standard CMOS process. The p-type implant provides a low initial snap-back trigger voltage, but the holding voltage may be too low, creating latch-up problems. The holding voltage is raised by about one volt by connecting the emitter of the vertical NPN transistor to parallel resistor and diode paths. When the vertical NPN transistor is triggered, its current initially flows through the resistor, creating an increasing voltage drop through the resistor as current rises. Once the voltage across the resistor reaches 0.5 volt, the diode in parallel with the resistor becomes forward biased and shunts a higher current than the resistor, raising the holding voltage. A clamp transistor may replace the diode.
286Method and system for determining true touch points on input touch panel using sensing modules9,367,1772016/06/14IOTSENThe present invention is to provide a method and system for determining true touch points on input touch panel. Two optical sensing module pairs are used to determine two groups of possible touch regions, further with overlap checking with virtual shadow regions to find out potential touch points. Occlusion checking is implemented to acquire true touch points from the potential touch points. The method of the present invention is capable of acquiring true touch points in a fast and reliable way. Furthermore, an interactive input system of the present invention comprises optical sensing modules having their corresponding optical emitters with different wavelengths, and light filters with peak transmission at different wavelengths to avoid from interference effect and over-exposed signal during signal detection by the optical sensing modules.
287Method of on-the-fly image stitching8,917,9512014/12/23AIBDThe presently claimed invention provides a method for stitching a plurality of images together in a way with least memory and CPU usage, and minimum file input and output, while still possessing fast computation speed to avoid post-scan delay for whole slide viewing and good stitching quality. The method of the present invention comprises the steps of calculating featureness of each candidate strip of a image by applying a mathematical transformation, calculating offset of the strip with correlation maximum location, calculating stitching reliability of the candidate strip from the pre-defined weighted function of its featureness and the correlation coefficients of each matching block, and determining optimal stitching path with stitching reliability.
288Predictive focusing for image scanning systems9,134,5232015/09/15AIBDThis invention discloses an apparatus for achieving predictive focusing in an image scanning system. The apparatus comprises an optical path-length changing plate and an image sensor. In one embodiment, the plate comprises a plurality of path-length changing members. The plate further includes a central region configured to provide a substantially constant change in optical path length across the central region, allowing an image passing therethrough to be in-focus captured. Having a light receiving surface, each path-length changing member is configured to provide a substantially non-uniform change in optical path length across the light receiving surface, allowing a focus plane of the image to be tilted such that the image projected onto the imaging sensor can be used for predicting an amount of optical adjustment required to achieve focusing. By using more than one path-length changing member, predictive focusing is achievable with more than one direction of focus-plane tilting.
289Configurable dynamic load shedding method in distributed stream computing system9,459,9292016/10/04AIBDA computer implemented method of load shedding used in stream computing system that considers the relative importance of each of the applications processing the incoming input data or events. The method of load shedding method also accounts for system physical constraints, such as memories and CPU utilization. The load shedding method first observes the workload of each application and arriving rate of the incoming input data or events. If the system is under an overloading condition, calculate a input data or event drop ratio for each application such that the projected sum of all applications' workload will be at or below the system capacity when the unprocessed input data or events are dropped according to the drop ratio for each application.
290Spatial scalable video coding using non-scalable video CODEC9,219,9242015/12/22AIBDThis invention discloses an encoding apparatus and a decoding apparatus for scalable video coding such that a non-scalable video decoder is usable for decoding a scalable video bit-stream comprising a base layer bit-stream and an enhancement layer bit-stream. In one embodiment, a source video frame is downscaled to give a downscaled video frame, which is then encoded into the base layer bit-stream. The difference between the source video frame and an up-scaled video frame reconstructed from the downscaled video frame in the base layer bit-stream yields a residual frame. The residual frame is partitioned into a number of residual sub-frames each having a resolution that is the downscaled video frame's resolution. The residual sub-frames are encoded into the enhancement layer bit-stream. Thereby, a non-scalable encoder is usable to encode both the downscaled video frame and the residual sub-frames, allowing both bit-streams to be decodable by employing only one non-scalable decoder.
291Interchangeable Zoom Lens Actuator with Auto-Focus Adjustment8,792,7822014/07/29IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an optical module that includes interchangeable lenses to adjust a zoom level or focus of the optical module.
292Composite material for a lithium ion battery anode and a method of producing the same9,431,6512016/08/30ICSA composite material for a lithium ion battery anode and a method of producing the same is disclosed, wherein the composite material comprises a porous electrode composite material. Pores with carbon-based material forming at the pore wall are created in situ. The porous electrode composite material provide space to accommodate volumetric changes during battery charging and discharging while the carbon-based material improved the conductivity of the electrode composite material. The method creates pores to have a denser carbon content inside the pores and a wider mouth of the pores to enhance lithium ion distribution.
293Partitioned Hybrid Substrate for Radio Frequency Applications9,066,4242015/06/23ICSThe presently claimed invention is to provide a package for compact RF signal system, and a method to form the package thereof in order to miniaturize the size of package, improve signal integrity, and reduce manufacturing cost. The package comprises a hybrid substrate with a sandwiched structure, in which the hybrid substrate comprises an upper layer and a lower layer with different dielectric properties being separated by an interposer for improving electrical isolation and mechanical stiffness. Metal layers are formed on the sidewalls of the opening to surround an active component, such that the metal sidewalls together with two ground plates in the upper and lower layers constitute a self-shielding enclosure inside the package to protect the active component.
294Deformable Surface Tracking in Augmented Reality Applications9,147,1132015/09/29CCTA computer implemented method for tracking a marker on a deformable surface in augmented reality (AR) applications, comprising: detecting image-key-points in a currently processed video frame of a video-captured scene; performing key-point-correspondence searching and matching the image-key-points with model-key-points are identified from an original image of the marker, comprising: calculating an key-point matching score for each image-key-point; applying a key-point matching score filter on the key-point matching scores; restricting the searching of the image-key-points in the currently processed video frame to within same mesh block determined in a previously processed video frame of the captured video frames; and applying adaptive thresholds on the key-point matching scores in determining successful matches of the image-key-points; performing motion detection of the marker in the video-captured scene and halting the application of the key-point matching score filter and suspending the restriction on the image-key-point searching if the marker is in significant movement.
295Color-encoded fringe pattern for three-dimensional shape measurement9,459,0942016/10/04IOTSENThis invention discloses using one or more color-encoded fringe patterns for optically, three-dimensionally measuring an object's shape. In one embodiment, a color-encoded fringe pattern comprising a plurality of fringes that are modulated in intensity is configured as follows. An individual fringe selected from the fringes comprises a colored line at a location on the fringe width. The colored line has a line width that is substantially narrower than the fringe width in order that the colored line has a substantially similar intensity over the line width. The individual fringe excluding the colored line has a fringe color that is substantially uniform over the individual fringe. The fringe color is substantially different from the line color. Fringe colors of all the fringes are substantially similar, thereby enabling a major portion of the color-encoded fringe pattern to provide a substantially-uniform illumination color for projection onto the object.
296Apparatus and method for focusing in fluorescence microscope8,809,8092014/08/19AIBDThe presently claimed invention provides a focusing apparatus and method for a fluorescence microscope which is capable of shortening the time in focusing, increasing system throughput and avoiding from undesirable photo-bleaching. The fluorescence microscope of the present invention employs a portion of excitation light to form images of a sample to determine a focus plane for fluorescence imaging. As intensity of the portion of the excitation light is much higher than that of fluorescence light, the exposure time is highly reduced for image formation used for focusing purpose. The fluorescence microscope of the present invention enables to perform both predictive focusing and multiplex focusing.
297Multi-lens imaging module and actuator with auto-focus adjustment9,494,7692016/11/15IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an optical module that includes a plurality of lenses and an electromagnetic actuator to adjust a zoom level or focus of the optical module.
298Antenna circuit and a method of optimisation thereof9,287,6242016/03/15ICSAn antenna circuit is having an impedance circuit which can cancel signal leakage from the input port into the isolation port of a directional coupler. The antenna circuit further comprises a second impedance circuit for optimizing power transfer from the input port to the output port of the directional coupler. Furthermore, the antenna is tunable in order to maximize the reception strength of the antenna. The antenna circuit provides at once the possibility of tuning the antenna strength, optimizing the power transmission and reducing signal jamming by cancelling signal leakage. The antenna finds use as an effective and miniature RFID antenna.
299Integrated bi-sensing optical structure for head mounted display9,360,9352016/06/07IOTSENA bi-sensing optical system capable of transmitting signals for eye and object tracking and/or detection, and/or capable of transmitting signals comprising visible light to an eye of a user and non-visible light for eye tracking and object detection and/or tracking is disclosed herein.
300Touch and motion detection using surface map, object shadow and a single camera9,429,4172016/08/30IOTSENA method for receiving user inputs in a system comprising a projector and a camera is provided. The method is based on determining an object's height above a reference surface. A surface map is used for mapping a location on the reference surface and a corresponding location in a camera-captured image having a view of the reference surface. In particular, a camera-observed shadow length, i.e. a length of the object's shadow observable by the camera, estimated by using the surface map, is used to compute the object's height above the reference surface (a Z coordinate). Whether or not the object touches the reference surface is also obtainable. After an XY coordinate is estimated, a 3D coordinate of the object is obtained. By computing a time sequence of 3D coordinates, the motional information, such as velocity and acceleration, is obtainable.
301Method of detecting edge under non-uniform lighting background9,519,9752016/12/13IOTSENA method of determining an edge of an object on a digital image sequence comprising the step of determining a first gradient direction profile of a first image in the digital image sequence; determining a second gradient direction profile of a second image in the digital image sequence; computing a differential profile based on the first gradient direction profile and the second gradient direction profile; and determining the edge of the object based on the differential profile wherein the differential profile registers gradient magnitudes of the second gradient direction profile and angular differences between the first gradient direction profile and the second gradient direction profile. A system thereof is also disclosed.
302Image projector9,298,0762016/03/29IOTSENAn image projector for augmenting the appearance of a physical object is disclosed, also known as an augmented reality projector. The augmented reality projector comprises an optical arrangement to provide the possibility of precise matching of a projected image of the physical object back onto the object itself, instead of using digital image processing to do so. Digital image processing may be used to enhance features of the image and is not required for resizing or orienting the image to the object. This reduces the need for computational power to process the image and spares processing resources to refresh the image in real time. Accordingly, the processed image can be refreshed to change the appearance of a moving object. Furthermore, the precise matching provides the possibility of using projected images a graphical use interface, as movements of a user's fingers on the interface can be determined accurately.
303Single-body unit for pulse oximeter calibration9,468,4032016/10/18IOTSENAn all-solid, single-body unit for calibrating a pulse oximeter that uses probe light beams is provided. A bulk of the unit is substantially composed of a mixture of materials comprising one or more polymer materials that form a flexible solid medium for the bulk of the unit, one or more scattering materials for scattering the probe light beams, and one or more dye materials for attenuating the probe light beams. The flexible solid medium enables a pulsatile rhythmic train of action force received by the unit to be transmitted in the unit during calibrating the pulse oximeter for substantially emulating change of absorbance characteristics of the probe light beams due to pulsing arterial blood. The scattering materials and the dye materials are localized in the flexible solid medium, enabling the unit to be used in calibrating the pulse oximeter without a need for an additional device for further emulation.
304System and Method for Detecting and Tracking Multiple Parts of an Object9,436,8722016/09/06IOTSENA system and method of detecting a posture of at least one predetermined part of an object comprising the steps of extracting a first object shape from a first image taken by a first image sensor, computing a characteristic dimension value of the predetermined part within a predetermined region of the first object shape, constructing a mask based on the characteristic dimension value, extracting a profile of the predetermined part from the first object shape by applying the mask on the first object shape, and identifying at least one predefined feature point in the profile of the predetermined part, thereby detecting the posture of the predetermined part is disclosed.
305Multi-View Synthesis in Real-Time With Fallback to 2D from 3D to Reduce Flicker in Low or Unstable Stereo-Matching Image Regions9,407,8962016/08/02ICSMulti view images are generated with reduced flickering. A first depth map is generated from stereo images by stereo-matching. When stereo-matching is poor or varies too much from frame to frame, disparity fallback selects a second depth map that is generated from a single view without stereo-matching, preventing stereo-matching errors from producing visible artifacts or flickering. Flat or textureless regions can use the second depth map, while regions with good stereo-matching use the first depth map. Depth maps are generated with a one-frame delay and buffered. Low-cost temporal coherence reduces costs used for stereo-matching when the pixel location selected as the lowest-cost disparity is within a distance threshold of the same pixel in a last frame. Hybrid view synthesis uses forward mapping for smaller numbers of views, and backward mapping from the forward-mapping results for larger numbers of views. Rotated masks are generated on-the-fly for backward mapping.
306Additive for Electrodeposition9,273,4072016/03/01ICSThis invention relates to a new compound represented by formula (I). Particularly, the new compound is used as an additive in copper electroplating. A chemical structure for the leveler, an electroplating bath containing the same, a method of preparing the additive and a method of electroplating a substrate with the electroplating bath containing the additive are disclosed. The additive compound/molecule of the present invention provides a branched structure at each ends, wherein each of the branches comprises a positively charged nitrogen moiety. The additive compound/molecule is formed by linking the branches having the positive charged nitrogen moieties to the backbone of the additive compound/molecule. This leads to a high charge density novel additive compound/molecule.
307Method and system of incorporating passive-based proximity data for position determination9,226,1142015/12/29CCTSystems and methods establish passive-based proximity regions to determine position of a device and an area. Example embodiments may be utilized in a wireless network where passive-based proximity regions are established for one or more access points in a wireless network. When a wireless device enters or moves through such a passive-based proximity region, one or more resources associated with the wireless network or wireless device may recognize the presence of the passive-based region and utilize this information to determine positioning data for the wireless device.
308Method and apparatus for facial detection using regional similarity distribution analysis9,436,8922016/09/06IOTSENA method and apparatus for facial recognition by a computing device using an adaptive search window and regional similarity distribution analysis are disclosed herein.
309Compensation filter for cascaded-integrator-comb decimator9,362,8902016/06/07COMThe present invention is directed to systems and methods which provide an improved compensation filter, as may be used with respect to a decimator, optimally designed using a convex optimization approach. Compensation filters of embodiments of the invention may, for example, be used with respect to a CIC decimator. In accordance with embodiments of the invention, compensation filters are designed with minimum order to approximate target frequency response in the target frequency bands. Additionally or alternatively, compensation filters of embodiments are optimally designed for passband drop and stopband attenuation improvement, such as to satisfy the specified peak ripple in the passband and/or to satisfy the specified peak errors over a set of target sub-bands in the stopband.
310Transmission-Reflectance Swappable Raman Probe for Physiological Detections9,295,4202016/03/29IOTSENA transmission-reflectance swappable Raman device and a method thereof are disclosed. The excitation light is selectively directed to the sample in one direction for generating the transmission Raman signal in transmission mode or in another direction for generating the reflectance Raman signal in reflectance mode. The content of an analyte in a sample can be determined by analyzing transmission and reflectance Raman signal.
311Digitally-programmable gain amplifier with direct-charge transfer and offset cancellation9,190,9612015/11/17ICSA Programmable-Gain Amplifier (PGA) has a digital value that programmably adjusts the gain of the analog amplifier. A variable capacitor has several switched sub-capacitors that are enabled by the digital value. Enabled sub-capacitors are switched between a sampled input and a virtual ground on one terminal, and connect to a summing node on the other terminal. The summing node connects to the inverting input of an op amp either through a switch or through a double-sampling capacitor that stores an offset. A feedback capacitor is in parallel with a sampling capacitor during a second clock phase when direct-charge transfer occurs, reducing power consumption of the amplifier. The feedback capacitor samples the sampled input during the first clock phase. The PGA gain is proportional to the sum of capacitances of enabled sub-capacitors. The gain can be adjusted for sensor inputs to an Analog Front-End (AFE), such as for an electro-cardiogram (ECG).
312Memory Efficient Implementation of LDPC Decoder9,106,2622015/08/11COMA computer processor implementable method of decoding low-density parity-check (LDPC) code, comprising: receiving a log-likelihood-ratio (LLR) input bitstream; performing a combined bit-deinterleaving and reordering process on the LLR input bitstream and storing in a physical memory space, comprising: determining a logical memory address for each LLR bit in the LLR input bitstream, determining a physical memory address for each LLR bit in the LLR input bitstream from logical memory address of the LLR bit; decoding the LLR input bitstream stored in the physical memory space; and performing a combined de-reordering and de-mapping process on the decoded LLR input bitstream.
313Method for performing a cell search in multiple antenna wireless systems9,237,5132016/01/12COMA methods for performing a cell search in multiple antenna wireless systems using a plurality of spatial filters is disclosed, and includes applying a plurality of spatial filters to a plurality of received signal streams to generate a plurality of filtered signal streams. The plurality of received signal streams correspond to signals received at a plurality of receive antennas from a plurality of signal sources (e.g., neighboring cells). In an aspect, the plurality of spatial filters may be predefined spatial filters and may be weighted using a set of predefined filter weights. In an additional or alternative aspect, the plurality of spatial filters may be adaptive spatial filters and may be weighted using a set of dynamically determined filter weights. The method includes detecting physical network identities based on the plurality of filtered signal streams.
314Serial multi-battery charger with independent simultaneous charge and discharge9,385,5422016/07/05ICSA serial battery charger has a battery matrix with switches that are configured by a microcontroller that reads voltages between batteries to determine if each battery is fully-charged, charging, or absent. A switch configuration allows charging and discharging currents to flow simultaneously, and allows discharging current but blocks charging current from fully-charged batteries to prevent over-charging. The charging current flows through all charging batteries in series while the discharging current flows from all fully-charged and charging batteries in series. Blocking and bypass switches route the charging current to all charging batteries in series, but bypass all fully-charged and absent batteries. The blocking and bypass switches route the discharging current serially through all fully-charged and charging batteries in the battery matrix while avoiding absent batteries. The switches are controlled by the switch configuration from the microcontroller. Larger battery matrixes have row and column lines that are connected by connecting switches.
315LED driver with small output ripple without requiring a high-voltage primary-side electrolytic capacitor9,306,4612016/04/05ICSA power converter reduces output ripple without using an electrolytic primary-side capacitor that can reduce product lifetime. Primary-Side Regulation (PSR) using an auxiliary winding provides a regulated secondary voltage with some low-frequency ripple on a secondary winding of a transformer. A smaller secondary capacitor that is not an electrolytic capacitor filters the output of the secondary side. A bang-bang controller controls the secondary side current to reduce current ripple despite voltage ripple. The bang-bang controller has a series resistor and inductor in series with a load such as an LED. A voltage drop across the series resistor increases when a switch turns on. This increasing voltage drop toggles the switch off once an upper limit voltage is reached. The voltage drop then decreases as inductor current is shunted by a diode, until the voltage drop reaches a lower limit voltage and the switch toggles on again.
316Area-efficient clamp for power ring ESD protection using a transmission gate9,356,4422016/05/31ICSElectrostatic discharge (ESD) protection is provided by a charge-latching power-to-ground clamp circuit. A filter capacitor and resistor generate a filter voltage that is buffered by three stages to drive the gate of a BigFET such as a large n-channel transistor. A transmission gate between the stages turns off when BigFET turns on, causing charge to be latched. The filter capacitor can then discharge while the BigFET remains on. A leaker resistor slowly discharges the gate of the large BigFET and turns the transmission gate back on when the BigFET turns off after shunting the ESD current. The length of time that the clamp shunts the ESD current is determined by the leaker resistor and gate capacitance of the BigFET, not by the filter capacitor, so a small filter capacitor may be used.
317Amplitude shift keyed (ASK) modulator/transmitter with fast fall time9,020,0712015/04/28ICSAn Amplitude-Shifted-Keyed (ASK) modulator/transmitter has fall time enhanced by pulsing pull-up and pull-down enhancement switches on for a short period of time after a data transition. The enhancement switches draw energy from a coupling capacitor to more rapidly reduce an amplitude of the carrier wave being output. An input carrier wave is applied to gates of p-channel and n-channel current sources that drive the coupling capacitor. Gates of the n-channel and p-channel enhancement switches also receive the input carrier wave when data is high, but are disabled when data is low. Multiple p-channel and n-channel transistors may be used in parallel for each current source or enhancement switch. Each of the multiple transistors in parallel has a gate that is AND'ed with an index signal. The index signals are programmable and determine how many of the parallel transistors are enabled, thus determining the aggregate current.
318Portable interactive whiteboard module9,465,4862016/10/11IOTSENA system for determining a touch point's location within a user-definable region is provided. The system comprises plural modules. In a set-up stage, a user positions each module to define a peripheral point of the region. Exemplarily, a module comprises a means for detecting alignment between the module and another one, a means for measuring an inter-module distance, and a means for making wireless data communication. In particular, the detecting of the alignment and the measuring of the inter-module distance are configured to be performed without physically connect the two modules together. Hence, a geometric coordinate of the module relative to the other one is determinable without a need to physically connect the two modules. The system can thereby be compactly packed for traveling to give an advantage of high portability to a portable interactive whiteboard system that incorporates such system.
319Molded device with anti-delamination structure providing multi-layered compression forces9,397,0532016/07/19ICSThe present invention provides a molded encapsulated multi-layered semiconductor device, comprising a first substrate, a second substrate and an anti-delamination structure (ADS). The ADS comprises a connecting part and extended structures, and is filled by an insulating material. The present invention is able to provide the molded semiconductor device with higher reliability and longer lifetime through reduction of shear stress generated from the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between a silicon die and the substrates by mechanically locking with the ADS.
320Asymmetric Edge Compensation of Both Anode and Cathode Terminals of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) Diode9,054,4852015/06/09ICSA laser driver circuit compensates for non-linear behavior of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) devices. A VCSEL has an internal parasitic capacitance that is charged while the VCSEL is on. When the VCSEL turns off, this internal parasitic capacitor discharges, keeping the VCSEL on longer, increasing the physical turn-off or fall time. The laser driver circuit compensates for the slower fall time by modulating both anode and cathode terminals of the VCSEL as the VCSEL is turned on and off. Both plates of the internal parasitic capacitor are discharged at turn off, cutting the parasitic discharge time in half. A cathode driver transistor modulates the cathode voltage while a source-follower transistor modulates the anode voltage. A modulating current may be switched using a current mirror structure. Multiple source-follower transistors may be selectable in parallel, with switches to select the total anode current, allowing for programmable compensation of the fall time.
321Adaptive lock for a computing system having multiple runtime environments and multiple processing units9,424,1032016/08/23COMA method for operating a lock in a computing system having plural processing units and running under multiple runtime environments is provided. When a requester thread attempts to acquire the lock while the lock is held by a holder thread, determine whether the holder thread is suspendable or non-suspendable. If the holder thread is non-suspendable, put the requester thread in a spin state regardless of whether the requester thread is suspendable or non-suspendable; otherwise determines whether the requester thread is suspendable or non-suspendable unless the requester thread quits acquiring the lock. If the requester thread is non-suspendable, arrange the requester thread to attempt acquiring the lock again; otherwise add the requester thread to a wait queue as an additional suspended thread. Suspended threads stored in the wait queue are allowable to be resumed later for lock acquisition. The method is applicable for the computing system with a multicore processor.
322Loading-Free Multi-Stage SAR-Assisted Pipeline ADC that Eliminates Amplifier Load by Re-Using Second-Stage Switched Capacitors as Amplifier Feedback Capacitor9,219,4922015/12/22ICSA multi-stage Successive-Approximation Register (SAR) pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has an amplifier between two switched capacitor networks, each controlled by a SAR. The load capacitance of the amplifier is magnified due to the amplifier's gain. This magnified load capacitance can disproportionately increase power consumption. The back plates of the second-stage switched capacitors are connected to the amplifier input using a feedback switch during an amplification phase, so that the second-stage switched capacitors are connected between the input and output of the amplifier as a feedback capacitor, rather than a load capacitor. Reset switches are added to drive both plates of the second-stage switched capacitors to ground during a reset phase before the amplification phase. Thus the second-stage switched capacitors function as both the feedback capacitor and as the switched capacitors controlled by the second SAR. Amplifier power is reduced since there is no separate load capacitor during the amplification phase.
323Method and device for concentrating, collimating, and directing light9,477,0712016/10/25IOTSENAn optical system for light energy concentration may comprise a light concentrator to convert incident light to converging light, a light collimating element to receive the converging light and to reduce an angle of convergence of the converging light, and a light directing element to direct the reduced-angle converging light to a light guide to transmit the directed light.
324ESD power clamp for silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and FinFET processes lacking parasitic ESD diode9,305,9162016/04/05ICSAn Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) protection circuit uses Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) transistors with buried oxide but no parasitic substrate diode useable for ESD protection. A filter voltage is generated by a resistor and capacitor. When a VDD-to-VSS ESD positive pulse occurs, the filter voltage passes through an n-channel pass transistor and inverted to drive a gate of a big SOI transistor that shunts ESD current. A second path is used for a VSS-to-VDD ESD positive pulse. The filter voltage passes through a p-channel pass transistor to the gate when the positive ESD pulse is applied to VSS. The big SOI transistor can connect between VDD and VSS for a power clamp, and the gates of the n-channel and p-channel pass transistors connect to VDD. A small diode may be added between VDD and VSS to generate a small triggering current to activate grounded-gate transistors near I/O pads for full-chip Pad-based ESD protection.
325Methods for frequency offset estimation with Zadoff-Chu sequences9,491,0242016/11/08COMA method for performing high speed mode detection of a carrier frequency offset (CFO) includes receiving a Zadoff-Chu signal at a wireless device, and determining a plurality of correlation peaks based on a correlation of the signal with one or more known Zadoff-Chu sequences. The method includes determining a carrier frequency offset (CFO) associated with the signal based on a phases associated with the plurality of correlation peaks and a coarse CFO estimate. The coarse CFO estimate may be determined based on a squared power ratio of particular pairs of the plurality of correlation peaks and the phases may be used to remove ambiguity associated with the coarse CFO estimate.
326Encryption techniques for improved sharing and distribution of encrypted content9,374,3732016/06/21CCTIn an embodiment, content may be encrypted by a first device using a dual hash chain technique, where the first device maintains a forward hash chain and a second device maintains a backward hash chain, and content keys for encrypting content are derived using values of the forward and backward hash chains. The second device may not have knowledge of a seed used to generate the forward hash chain, and therefore may be unable to generate the content keys, reducing a likelihood that the encrypted content becomes compromised. Additionally, embodiments provide for techniques for using proxy re-encryption (PRE) to re-encrypt content, such that the encrypted content may be provided to and decrypted by a requesting device without knowledge of the forward and backward hash chains. Additionally, embodiments provide techniques for distributing encrypted content to a requesting device with fine-grained access control.
327Quad-Array Diode-Less RF-to-DC Rectifying Charge-Pump Converter for Energy Harvesting9,385,6252016/07/06ICSA RF-to-DC converter charges a battery or powers a circuit from the energy of received radio waves. The RF energy received is very small for far-field applications, so the converter is highly sensitive. Four capacitor arrays are arranged in two banks. Buffered RF signals pump bottom plates of the capacitors. A series of L-switches in each bank connect between the two capacitor arrays in that bank. Each L switch has a pre-charge switch that charges that stage's input capacitor, and a stage-transfer switch that shares charge from the input capacitor to an output capacitor for that stage. Switches in the two banks alternately pre-charge and pump, with the left bank pumping while the right bank pre-charges. Switches are transistors with substrates tied to their sources or actively driven by substrate control signals. One bank may use n-channel transistors with the other bank uses p-channel transistors. Gate voltages may be boosted.
328Method and apparatus for channel estimation in massive MIMO systems with dynamic training design9,503,1642016/11/22COMThis invention is concerned with estimating a massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) channel. In one embodiment, the transmit antennas are first partitioned into antenna groups each comprising a subset of the transmit antennas such that a pre-determined level of channel-estimation accuracy is attainable. For each antenna group, training signals for estimating a group of channels associated with the antenna group are determined. In particular, the number of the antenna groups, the subset of the transmit antennas for forming the antenna group, and the training signals for the antenna group are determined based on spatial correlations of the massive MIMO channel, a maximum allowable total number of training signals and a transmit signal-to-noise ratio such that the pre-determined level of channel-estimation accuracy is achievable. Advantageously, the number of antenna groups is determined by identifying a highest number of antenna groups under a constraint that the pre-determined level is achievable.
329Method and apparatus of channel estimation in multi-user massive MIMO systems9,401,8242016/07/26COMThe presently claimed invention provides a method of channel estimation in a multi-user massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output system. Candidate pilots are selected for each user equipment based on their spatial correlation matrices. Through determining the similarity of spatial correlation matrices among different user equipments, shared pilots among them can be found, and a base station can transmit a union set of pilots for channel estimation. The present invention is able to provide high channel estimation accuracy and reduce training signal resource.
330Asynchronous successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) in synchronized system9,484,9452016/11/01ICSA correcting asynchronous Successive-Approximation Register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) detects and corrects metastability errors. An analog signal is synchronously sampled by a system clock, but data bits are converted asynchronously. A valid detector compares true and complement outputs of a comparator that compares the sampled voltage to a DAC voltage generated from digital test value from the SAR. Once the true and complement outputs diverge past logic thresholds, the valid detector activates a VALID signal indicating that comparison is completed. The compare result is then latched in as a data bit and the SAR advances to the next test value. Once all bits have been converted, an End-of-Conversion (EOC) is signaled. If the EOC does not occur by the end of the system clock, a metastability error is detected. The current bit that never finished comparison is forced high and all other unconverted bits are forced low.
331Lens moving apparatus9,703,0682017/07/11IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging module comprising an electromagnetic actuator to provide focus-related and image stabilization-related functionality.
332Message retrieving system with signal collision mitigation and a method thereof9,680,5122017/06/13ICSA message retrieving system and method for signal collision mitigation and the method thereof are disclosed. The message retrieving system transmits two orthogonal signals over two isolated antenna during a time period that it expects to receive the response. Two virtual channels are artificially created and the collision of response signals originated from the respondents is mitigated.
333Visual-experience-optimized super-resolution frame generator9,547,8872017/01/17ICSAn image processor generates a Super-Resolution (SR) frame by upscaling. A Human Visual Preference Model (HVPM) helps detect random texture regions, where visual artifacts and errors are tolerated to allow for more image details, and immaculate regions having flat areas, corners, or regular structures, where details may be sacrificed to prevent annoying visual artifacts that seem to stand out more. A regularity or isotropic measurement is generated for each input pixel. More regular and less anisotropic regions are mapped as immaculate regions. Higher weights for blurring, smoothing, or blending from a single frame source are assigned for immaculate regions to reduce the likelihood of generated artifacts. In the random texture regions, multiple frames are used as sources for blending, and sharpening is increased to enhance details, but more artifacts are likely. These artifacts are more easily tolerated by humans in the random texture regions than in the regular-structure immaculate regions.
334Apparatus and method for fast evaluation of electroplating formulation performance in microvia filling9,617,6532017/04/11ICSThe presently claimed invention provides an electrochemical analytical apparatus and a method for evaluating performance of electroplating formulations of electrolyte solutions used for via filling. The electrochemical analytical apparatus comprises an electric power generating device, an electrical output signal measurement device, an electrochemical measurement device, and a motion generator. The electrochemical measurement device of the present invention comprises a supporting structure, a cavity, a cavity electrode, and a surface electrode. The electrical output signals of the cavity electrode and the surface electrode are measured during electroplating for calculating a filling performance value. The presently claimed invention provides an accurate, fast and cost effective method for evaluating performance of electroplating formulations, following with choosing the electroplating formulation of the highest FP value for actual microvia filling process.
335Method of analyzing at least two inhibitors simultaneously in a plating bath9,575,0322017/02/21ICSThe presently claimed invention provides an accurate, fast, and cost effective method for determining the additive concentrations of at least two inhibitors simultaneously in an electroplating bath by using different electrical load conditions. The method of the present invention is able to determine additive concentrations of different inhibitors effectively during on-line feedback control for adjusting the amount of additives in the electroplating bath to maintain the additive concentrations within pre-defined limits during device production.
336Differential temperature sensor with sensitivity set by current-mirror and resistor ratios without limiting DC bias9,638,5842017/05/02ICSA differential on-chip temperature sensor circuit can be implemented in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process using PNP transistors. A pair of transistors have collector currents that are sensitive to voltage, both directly and due to saturation currents. A scaling resistor connects to the emitter of one transistor and its voltage compared to the other transistor's emitter voltage by an error amplifier that generates a bias voltage to current sources that are proportional to absolute temperature since the saturation current sensitivity is subtracted out. The current is mirrored to sink current through a multiplier resistor from an output. An amplifier connected across the multiplier resistor compares a reference voltage to set the DC bias independent of temperature sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity is proportional to the ratio of the multiplier resistor and the scaling resistor, and is multiplied by a mirroring factor. A differential output is provided.
337Multi-location learning-activity state management for distance education9,679,3402017/06/13AIBDA method for delivering distance education for real clients, each either a teacher client or a student client, at multiple teaching sites and a system using the method are provided. A multi-layer arrangement is used to arrange computing servers to be one first-level server and one or more second-level servers each communicable with the first-level server. Each server serves real clients located in a pre-determined site. Furthermore, each server sets up a virtual client to execute the teacher client's activity command so as to locally generate application-specific data, which are then stored in this server. When a communication link to a student client is re-established after an activity interruption, resynchronization of the student client's learning-activity state with the teacher client's is regained based on the locally-generated application-specific data stored in the server that serves the student client without a need to burden other servers.
338Systems and methods for mitigation of self-interference in spectrally efficient full duplex communications9,698,8362017/07/04COMSystems and methods which provide mitigation of self-interference in spectrally efficient full duplex (e.g., transmit and receive using the same frequency simultaneously) communications are described. Embodiments provide an interference mitigation structure having a multi-tap vector modulator interference cancellation circuit operable to cancel time varying multipath interference in the analog RF domain. A multi-tap vector modulator interference cancellation circuit of embodiments may comprise part of a multi-stage interference cancellation circuit, such as a multi-stage interference cancellation circuit comprising a multi-tap vector modulator interference cancellation circuit and a digital residual interference cancellation circuit. A digital residual interference cancellation circuit of embodiments provides residual interference cancellation. A multi-stage interference cancellation circuit configuration of embodiments is operable to provide cancellation of strong multipath signals as well as cancellation of residual multipath signals, including interference in the received signal associated with circulator leakage, antenna reflection and multipath.
339Locally enhanced direct liquid cooling system for high power applications9,713,2842017/07/18ICSThe present invention discloses a fluid cooling assembly which facilitates turbulent flow inside the assembly so as to achieve better heat dissipating effect. The cooling assembly comprises an enclosed chamber with an inlet and an outlet for fluid to pass through; together with a heat spreader; a plurality of micropillars and a plurality of heat dissipating fins installed inside the assembly. When fluid flows through the chamber, these elements in combination are adapted to create an enhanced turbulent flow upon the fluid so as to effectively dissipate heat from said heat spreader through the fluid.
340Channel-quality estimation for a wireless channel9,722,7582017/08/01COMThis invention provides a method for a first communication device, such as a base station, to estimate a channel-quality profile of a channel when a second communication device, e.g., a user equipment, returns only channel-quality indicators (CQIs) of selected subbands and a wideband CQI. The profile is obtained by including, for any two neighboring frequencies of the selected subbands, an estimated CQI of a middle frequency between the two neighboring frequencies. After translating the CQIs of the two neighboring frequencies into corresponding linear CQI values, a linear estimated-CQI value for the middle frequency is determined by subtracting an offset from an average of said corresponding linear CQI values. The offset is determined according to a frequency separation between the two neighboring frequencies. Preferably, the offset is linearly proportional to the frequency separation. Interpolation, preferably linear interpolation, is used to obtain linear CQI values of other frequencies.
341Self-powered and battery-assisted CMOS wireless bio-sensing IC platform9,706,2692017/07/11ICSA bio-sensing processor chip acts as an auto-configurable platform to support a wide variety of bio-sensors. Nano-wires with attached bio-receptors for specific bio-molecules, ECG, and SPO2 bio-sensors drive analog voltages or currents to analog inputs of the bio-sensing processor chip. These analog inputs are divided into three sections. An input sensor detector/decoder detects which analog inputs are active and configures an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to convert first-section inputs to 12 digital bits, second-section inputs to 16 bits, and third-section inputs to 20 bits. An Analog Front-End (AFE) is bypassed for the first section inputs but amplifies and filters second and third section inputs. A Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) sends the converted digital values to a nearby external device using NFC or WiFi transmitters. When no battery is detected, energy is harvested from NFC signals from the external device, and one-shot measurements are made.
342Lateral-diode, vertical-SCR hybrid structure for high-level ESD protection9,640,5232017/05/02ICSA lateral p-n diode in the center of and surrounded by a vertical Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) forms an Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) protection structure. The lateral p-n diode has a cross-shaped P+ diode tap with four rectangles of N+ diode regions in each corner of the cross. A P-well under the P+ diode tap is also an anode of a vertical PNPN SCR that has a deep N-well in a P-substrate. The deep N-well surrounds the lateral diode. Triggering MOS transistors are formed just beyond the four ends of the cross shaped P+ diode tap. Each triggering MOS transistor has N+ regions at the edge of the deep N-well and in the P-substrate that act as the cathode terminals. A deep P+ implant region under the N+ region at the edge of the deep N-well decreases a trigger voltage of the vertical SCR.
343Method and a gateway node for reducing paging traffic in a wireless communication system9,713,1202017/07/18COMA method for reducing paging traffic between a gateway (GW) and plural base stations (BSs) is provided when paging user equipments (UEs). A cache map, which records most-recently visited BSs of selected UEs, is used to limit the number of BSs in the paging of each selected UE, thereby reducing paging traffic. Furthermore, paging requests sent to the same BS node are grouped into one batch in generating a transport-layer payload, reducing the number of generated transport-layer messages. When used in a LTE system, piggybacking paging requests as provided by the SCTP reduces paging traffic and windowing/congestion control overhead at the transport layer. Transmission efficiency is thus improved. In addition, the number of paging requests sent out by the GW node per one paging interval is controlled to be not greater than a pre-determined maximum value to further limit paging traffic for avoiding occurrence of a paging storm.
344Low-headroom constant current source for high-current applications9,661,6952017/05/23ICSA low-headroom current driver does not use an op amp or resistor. A sensing transistor having its source connected to a drain of an output transistor senses variations in an output current. The gate, source, and drain voltages of the sensing transistor are mirrored to a sense mirror transistor to control a sense current. The sense current is mirrored to a reference source transistor to generate a mirrored sense current. An error between the mirrored sense current and a fixed reference current is stored as charge on an error-storing capacitor. The stored error charge creates a negative-feedback compensation current that adjusts a gate voltage generated by a feedback-driving transistor. The adjusted gate voltage controls the gate of the output transistor to compensate for the sensed variation in output current. The sensing current is also compensated using a sense-mirror tail transistor connected to the sense mirror transistor.
345Harmonics suppression circuit for a switch-mode power amplifier9,641,1412017/05/02ICSEven harmonics are suppressed by a harmonics-reducing bias generator that drives bias voltages to cascode control transistors in series with driver transistors in a power amplifier. A first bias voltage is generated by mirroring pull-up currents in the power amplifier. A p-channel source transistor and a p-channel cascode current-mirror transistor also mirror the power amplifier pull-up current to a midpoint node. An n-channel sink transistor and an n-channel cascode current-mirror transistor mirror the pull-down current in the power amplifier to the midpoint node. An op amp compares the midpoint node to VDD/2, and drives the gate of a p-channel feedback transistor. Current from the p-channel feedback transistor flows through an n-channel cascode current-mirror transistor that generates a second bias voltage. The second bias voltage is adjusted until the midpoint node reaches VDD/2, causing the pull-up and pull-down currents in the power amplifier to better match, reducing even harmonics.
346Base station selection in ultra dense network handover scenarios9,648,5392017/05/09COMFor an ultra dense network (UDN) having small cells of highly overlapped coverages, a user equipment (UE) selects in a handover process a preferred base station (BS) from candidate BSs for minimizing occurrence of handover events. The UE computes finite differences consisting of a first-, a second-, and one or more higher-order differences, according to received signal strength (RSS) values obtained for each candidate BS. A preference level, which is a total number of finite differences having consecutive order numbers, including the first-order difference, and being positive or non-negative, is computed for each candidate BS. One or more favorable candidate BSs from the candidate BSs are identified such that the group of such favorable candidate BSs has the same preference level that is maximum among all the preference levels computed for the candidate BSs. The preferred BS is selected from the group of such favorable candidate BSs.
347Method and system of identification and authentication using facial expression9,619,7232017/04/11CCTThe present invention employs a first step of stationary face recognition, followed by a facial expression test, a continuous movement tracking test, and a 3D perspective check to identify and authenticate a subject, prevent photo spoofing and facemask spoofing, and determining whether the subject is a living person. The method requires a subject to present her face before a camera, which can be the built-in or peripheral camera of a mobile communication device. The method also requires displaying to the subject certain instructions and the real-time video feedback of the subject face on a display screen, which can be the built-in or peripheral display screen of the mobile communication device or mobile computing device. The 3D perspective check uses a single camera to take two images of the subject's face for the calculating the stereoscopic view data of the subject's face.
348Three dimensional fully molded power electronics module having a plurality of spacers for high power applications9,704,8192017/07/11ICSA power electronic package includes a first substrate, a second substrate oppositely disposed from the first substrate, one or more chips disposed between the substrates, and at least three spacers. The spacers control a height variation of the power electronic package and protect the chips and other electronics from experiencing excessive stress. The height of the spacers is determined based on a height of the chips, on a height of solder blocks that connect the chips to the top substrate, and on a height of solder blocks that connect the chips to the bottom substrate.
349Fast density estimation method for defect inspection application9,846,9292017/12/19IOTSENThe present invention provide a high speed spatial density estimation algorithm to estimate defect density maps for blob analysis in an image processing field for inspection. The method of the present invention uses a rotated L1 epsilon-ball neighborhood mask for determining a defect density for each of target pixels to generate a defect density map for defect detection of an object. The present method is capable of providing high detection speed and substantially eliminating influence of the noise from images.
350High resolution (HR) panorama generation without ghosting artifacts using multiple HR images mapped to a low resolution 360-degree image9,811,9462017/11/07ICSA hybrid-resolution panoramic VR generator places High-Resolution (HR) patches from a ring of HR cameras onto a 360-degree Low-Resolution (LR) image from a LR camera pointing upward from the ring into a panoramic mirror that captures the combined field of view of all the multiple HR cameras, but at a lower resolution. Ghosting artifacts caused by parallax errors between adjacent HR cameras are eliminated because object placement is determined by the 360-degree LR image. Each HR image is homographicly projected into 3 projections by grouping objects of different depths to obtain homographic matrixes. The 360-degree LR image is upscaled to HR and a query patch is searched in search windows in the three projections for up to two adjacent HR images. Best-matching patches are weighted by similarity with the query patch and blended to generate a reconstructed patch placed at the query patch location in a reconstructed HR panorama image.
351Lens moving apparatus9,910,2412018/03/06IOTSENThe subject matter disclosed herein relates to an imaging module comprising an electromagnetic actuator to provide focus-related and image stabilization-related functionality.
352Non-invasive Measurement of Skin Thickness and Glucose Concentraion with Raman Spectroscopy and Method of Calibration Thereof9,924,8942018/03/27IOTSENThe present invention discloses a non-invasive method of measuring skin thickness and blood glucose concentration of a subject by a Raman system. The advantage of the present invention is that a single Raman spectrum is used to measure both the skin thickness and glucose concentration. The skin thickness and Raman intensity retrieved from the same Raman spectrum are both utilized to yield a more accurate blood glucose concentration. The present invention also discloses a Raman system for measuring physiological data of a subject. It comprises a Raman spectroscopic unit and a signal processing unit.
353Wavelet-based Image Decolorization and Enhancement9,858,4952018/01/02AIBDThe present invention relates to image processing. More particularly, the present invention provides methods for efficient image decolorization and color image enhancement. The methods of the present invention comprise decolorization in frequency domain, adaptive brightness control for an enhanced grayscale image and color image enhancement. The present invention is able to improve sharpness and fine details in both enhanced grayscale and color images.
354Systems and methods for time synchronization between transmitters and receivers in a communication system9,912,5112018/03/06ICSSystems and methods which provide training sequence or preamble-based synchronization with respect to non-coherent modulated signals and/or differentially coherent modulated signals are described. Embodiments provide for time synchronization using a technique for mitigating the effect of carrier frequency offset (CFO) with respect to the received signal. Embodiments of the present invention provide for frequency synchronization using a technique for estimating CFO using a constant bias induced with respect to the received signal by CFO. Additionally or alternatively, embodiments of the present invention provide for frequency synchronization using a technique for estimating CFO using phase rotation caused by CFO. The time synchronization and frequency synchronization of embodiments may be performed independently, without requiring the results of one synchronization operation for performing the other synchronization operation.
355Systems and methods for frequency synchronization between transmitters and receivers in a communication system9,912,5122018/03/06ICSSystems and methods which provide training sequence or preamble-based synchronization with respect to non-coherent modulated signals and/or differentially coherent modulated signals are described. Embodiments provide for time synchronization using a technique for mitigating the effect of carrier frequency offset (CFO) with respect to the received signal. Embodiments of the present invention provide for frequency synchronization using a technique for estimating CFO using a constant bias induced with respect to the received signal by CFO. Additionally or alternatively, embodiments of the present invention provide for frequency synchronization using a technique for estimating CFO using phase rotation caused by CFO. The time synchronization and frequency synchronization of embodiments may be performed independently, without requiring the results of one synchronization operation for performing the other synchronization operation.
356Timing Offset Estimation in an OFDM-based System by SINR Measurement9,860,8612018/01/02COMA method for timing synchronization of an OFDM signal is useful for a sniffing base station (BS) to establish BS synchronization with another BS in a mobile communication system. The method comprises estimating a timing offset of the signal from a reference sampling instant. In estimating the timing offset, first determine a maximum detection range of an estimable timing offset estimated solely by an observed phase difference between two pre-selected pilot symbols in the signal. Then the timing offset is determined as an integer multiple of the maximum detection range plus a residual timing offset. The multiplying integer is determined from a set of candidate integers. According to a candidate integer under consideration, a portion of an OFDM-signal sample sequence is masked out and a resultant signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) is computed. The multiplying integer is determined by identifying the candidate integer having the greatest SINR.
357Wearable Device with Intelligent User-Input Interface9,857,9192018/01/02IOTSENA wearable device, having a camera and a light source, receives user inputs by a first method of measuring a height of a finger-like object's tip above a reference surface if this surface is present, or a second method of estimating a 3D location of the tip. In the first method, a plain sheet of light is projected to the object, casting a shadow on the surface. A camera-observed shadow length is used to compute the tip's height above the surface. In the second method, the nearest and farthest locations of the tip are estimated according to pre-determined lower and upper bounds of the object's physical width. The object is then illuminated with a structured-light pattern configured such that an area between the nearest and farthest locations receives a portion of the pattern where this portion does not contain a repeated sub-pattern, enabling unique determination of the tip's 3D location.
358Vehicle detection, tracking and localization based on enhanced anti-perspective transformation9,928,4262018/03/27AIBDA method for a vehicle management system with a perspective view camera generating perspective images of vehicles in a traffic direction, including performing an anti-perspective transform on the perspective images; separating each anti-perspective image into sub-images along one of a radial direction and a tangential direction relative to the traffic direction; determining a scale factor for each sub-image based upon measuring a scale of each vehicle at plural positions in one image using a frame difference method performing a scale transform for each sub-image using the corresponding scale factors for the sub-image; combining each of the scale transformed sub-images for each vehicle into corresponding enhanced anti-perspective images; performing vehicle detection for each vehicle based a combination of the enhanced anti-perspective images in which tracking is enhanced with an optimized detection box size range determined by the enhanced anti-perspective images; and performing vehicle tracking for each vehicle based on the combination of the enhanced anti-perspective images in which detecting is enhanced with the optimized detection box size range determined by the enhanced anti-perspective images.
359Method and Device for Tonometric Blood Pressure Measurement9,931,0762018/04/03IOTSENA method for determining an artery location on a living subject's skin and positioning a tonometry pressure sensor on the artery location for tonometric blood pressure measurement is provided. The method comprises a non-contact optical search followed by a contact pressure search. In the non-contact optical search, an optical-sensing unit is used to scan the skin along a scan path while maintaining a pre-determined distance between the unit and the scan path. A search region within the scan path and a height profile characterizing the scan path's curvature are determined. The search region is determined such that an artery is predicted to lie thereunder. The artery location is then searched within the search region by the contact pressure search, in which the pressure sensor sweeps along the search region and the sweeping is guided by curvature information provided by the height profile. A device using the method is also provided.
360Method for Managing Multiple Windows on a Screen for Multiple Users, and Device and System Using the Same9,954,9272018/04/24AIBDReal-time managing multiple display windows on a screen for multiple users each allowed to request reserving an area on the screen and each having a priority value indicating a level of right to use the screen is considered. In a method, the screen is partitioned into grid-area units. Upon receiving a request from a requesting user, determine a target window formed by one or more of these units to cover the area to be reserved. Whether the requesting user is permitted to use the target window is then determined. If permitted, the target window is allocated to the requesting user as a new window. If the target window overlaps any already-allocated display window, the already-allocated window is adjusted (resized/removed) to not overlap the target window. All the allocated windows are then tiled one by one in an order according to the users' priority values for maximizing the screen's usage percentage.
361Linear-in-dB, Low-Voltage, Programmable/Variable Gain Amplifier (PGA) Using Recursive Current Division9,966,9132018/05/08ICSA Programmable-Gain Amplifier (PGA) has programming steps that are linear when expressed in Decibels (linear-in-dB). A Recursive Current Division (RCD) resistor network generates currents that are selected by programmable switches to connect to a summing node input of an amplifier. A feedback resistor is connected across the summing node and the amplifier output. The resistor network has only three resistance values regardless of the number of currents selectable as programming steps. The value of a third resistor is set equal to the equivalent resistance of a second resistor in parallel with a series connection of a first resistor and the third resistors. Each final cell in the resistor network is equivalent to the third resistor, allowing recursive division of adjacent currents. The ratio of adjacent currents remains constant for all cells. Recursive Current Division (RCD) produces linear-in-dB programming steps. Floating switches are avoided since switches connect to ground.
362Method and System for Enhancing Accuracy in Location and Proximity Determination9,949,2262018/04/17COMA system comprising beacon-generating clusters for enabling a mobile computing device to perform location or proximity determination is provided. Each cluster comprises a primary station for broadcasting a primary beacon, and an offset-assisted station, positioned from the primary station by an offset distance along a direction, for broadcasting a secondary beacon. The offset distance and the direction are unique for all the clusters, causing a jittering area, within which the mobile computing device is unable to determine which one of adjacent primary stations is closer to from detecting the primary beacons, to be reduced by further utilizing the secondary beacons provided by the clusters. Fluctuation in received signal strength indicator (RSSI) can be reduced by having each station, primary or secondary, installed with multiple co-located broadcasting units for utilizing space and time diversity to reduce RSSI fluctuation. In another option, multiple offset-assisted stations are used for each cluster.
363Fast Coarse Tune and Fine Tune Calibration for a Synthesizer by Multi-Curve Calibration within a Target Window9,954,5432018/04/24ICSA Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) has a multi-curve voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a curve-select input that adjusts the capacitance within the VCO and thus the VCO gain. A calibration unit generates a curve-select value to the VCO. Coarse calibration selects a Center Curve CC value using binary search of the curve-select bits. During fine calibration, the number of pulses of the VCO output are counted and stored for all curves in a target window around the center curve. The stored pulse counts are compared to an ideal pulse count for a specified frequency, and the curve-select value for the closest-matching pulse count is applied to the VCO. The target window is much smaller than all possible curves, so calibration is performed only on a few curves, reducing calibration time. A switch before the VCO opens the loop for faster open-loop calibration. Pulses are counted digitally without expensive analog comparators.
364Gain Calibration for Direct Modulation Synthesizer Using a Look-Up Table Searched by a Reduced Count from an Overflow Counter9,935,6402018/04/03ICSA two-point modulation Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) has a gain-adjustable voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). A digital data modulation signal is combined with a carrier and input to a feedback divider. The data modulation signal is also input to a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to generate an analog voltage to a second input of the VCO. A calibration unit divides the VCO output and counts pulses. During calibration, the data modulation signal is set to minimum and then maximum values and VCO output pulses counted. A count difference for the data modulation signal at maximum and minimum values is input to a Look-Up Table (LUT) to read out a gain calibration value. During normal operation mode, the gain calibration value from the LUT is applied to a second input of the DAC, which drives the VCO to adjust VCO gain. A switch before the VCO opens the loop for faster open-loop calibration.
365Alternate Plating and Etching Processes for through Hole Filling9,991,1612018/06/05ICSA method for filling a through hole (TH) located on a substrate is provided. The TH is a continuous channel having an upper rim, a lower rim and an interior surface. In one embodiment, the method comprises steps (a)-(d). In the step (a), a conductive material (CM) is deposited over the substrate to thereby deposit a layer of the CM around the rims and on the interior surface. In the step (b), the deposited CM is etched. In particular, the etching step selectively removes more CM deposited at the rims relative to CM deposited at a mid-section of the interior surface of the channel. In the step (c), the steps (a) and (b) are optionally repeated until the channel is sealed at the mid-section by a bridge formed of CM. In the step (d), the CM is further deposited over the substrate to thereby completely fill the TH.
366Apparatus and A Method For Inspecting A Light Transmissive Optical Component9,970,8842018/05/15IOTSENAn apparatus for inspecting a light transmissive optical component comprises an image capturing module arranged on a first side of a support configured to hold a light transmissive optical component while it is being inspected. One or more first illuminating means are arranged on the first side of the support and adapted to illuminate from a first side of a light transmissive optical component held by the support. One or more second illuminating means are arranged on a second side of the support and adapted to illuminate from a second side of the light transmissive optical component held by the support, the second side of the support opposing the first side of said support. One or more third illuminating means arranged on the second side of the support and adapted to provide transmissive illumination at the second side of the light transmissive optical component held by the support, the third illuminating means comprises one or more of an illuminating surface and a light blocking surface selectively operable and are arranged to face and substantially align with the second illuminating means on the second side of the support.
367Method of determining stiffness index of an arterial network and System thereof10,058,2552018/08/28IOTSENA method of determining stiffness index of an arterial network is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of: obtaining a pulse waveform related to the arterial network; estimating a source pulse based on at least one predetermined feature of the pulse waveform; determining a plurality of characteristics of the pulse waveform based on a relationship between the pulse waveform and the source pulse; and calculating the stiffness index of the arterial network based on the plurality of characteristics of the pulse waveform. An arterial stiffness index measuring device employing the above methodology is also disclosed therein.
368Systems and methods for using high probability area and availability probability determinations for white space channel identification10,045,2372018/08/07COMSystems and methods which provide white space channel identification and/or selection using high probability area determinations for a device and availability probability calculations for channels based on a probability model are described. A white space device (WSD) may utilize spectrum scanner sensing results to determine one or more course high probability area (HPA) for the WSD. The sensing results may further be analyzed to derive probability information regarding the WSD being located at the HPAs, to thereby refine the HPAs. Thereafter, the information regarding probabilities of the WSD being located at the HPAs may be utilized with information from a white space location database to determine an availability probability of one or more white space channels. One or more such white space channels may be identified and/or selected for use by the WSD.
369Method and apparatus of topological pilot decontamination for massive MIMO systems10,063,3962018/08/28COMThe presently claimed invention relates generally to a method and an apparatus for pilot decontamination for massive MIMO system and, more particularly, to a massive MIMO communication system based on channel estimation with topological interference alignment.
370Closed-loop massive MIMO system architecture10,044,4202018/08/07COMA method for transmitting payload data from a base station (BS) to a user equipment (UE) via a MIMO channel is provided. Channel estimation is performed first and the channel-estimation result is used for optimizing data transmission. Instead of reporting CQI, RI and PMI to the BS, the UE reports a first channel transfer function characterizing an end-to-end process of obtaining received CSI-RS symbols from originally-sent CSI-RS symbols. Computation burden at the UE is reduced as computation of the CQI, RI and PMI is eliminated. At the BS, an effect caused by the antenna port-to-transceiver unit (AP-to-TXRU) virtualization operation is removed from the first channel transfer function to yield a second channel transfer function. With the second channel transfer function closer to the MIMO channel transfer function than the first one, the "content" of the MIMO channel is better utilized in optimizing data-transmission performance.
371Optimized deployment of BLE network and power efficient and secure management of data exchange between BLE devices10,039,0572018/07/31COMThe present disclosure is related to a system for managing data exchanges between Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices. The system includes a plurality of BLE devices. At least one BLE device is configured as a parent node and at least one BLE device is configured as a child node. The parent node is configured to receive a BLE packet, including data reported by the child node in a payload field of the BLE packet, and to use a location function to determine a location in the payload field for inserting data to be reported from the parent node. The parent node aggregates the data to be reported from the parent node and the data reported by the child node by inserting the data from the parent node into the determined location in the payload field of the BLE packet, and then broadcasts the BLE packet with the aggregated data.
372Method and system for jointly determining computational offloading and content prefetching in a cellular communication system10,037,2312018/07/31AIBDProvided is a method and system in a mobile wireless communication network for jointly determining computational offloading and data prefetching for a plurality of user equipments (UEs) in the mobile network. The method includes using a decision module in the mobile wireless communication network to process data indicative of mobile wireless communication network status including statuses of one or more UEs attached to the network. The decision module is configured to determine if the status of the mobile wireless communication network including said one or more UEs is sufficient to support joint computational offloading and data prefetching by at least one of the UEs. In the case that a positive determination is made, the decision module transmits a message to a UE to enable it to offload part of its computational load to one of a network edge computing node, a mobile wireless communication network server, and server in a network connected to the mobile wireless communication network; and to prefetch data to one of the network edge computing node, the mobile wireless communication network server, and a mobile wireless communication network data cache.
373Three dimensional fully molded power electronics module having a plurality of spacers for high power applications10,014,2802018/07/03ICSA power electronic package includes a first substrate, a second substrate oppositely disposed from the first substrate, one or more chips disposed between the substrates, and at least three spacers. The spacers control a height variation of the power electronic package and protect the chips and other electronics from experiencing excessive stress. The height of the spacers is determined based on a height of the chips, on a height of solder blocks that connect the chips to the top substrate, and on a height of solder blocks that connect the chips to the bottom substrate.
374Acquiring permanent identifier of user equipment by gateway in mobile communication system10,064,0482018/08/28COMA gateway (GW) acquires an International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of a user equipment (UE) without requesting a mobile management entity (MME) of a core network (CN) to provide it. The GW detects arrival of a S1AP message for the UE. If the GW does not have the IMSI of the UE, and if a NAS payload of the S1AP message is ciphered, send to the UE a rejecting message indicating detaching the UE from the CN, causing the UE to request re-attaching to the CN in a S1AP message that is an Initial UE Message, which contains a temporary identifier of the UE. Then alter the Initial UE Message with a fabricated temporary identifier not recognizable by the MME and send the altered message to the MME, causing the MME to ask the UE to identify itself with the IMSI, which is read by the GW.
375Systems and methods for blood pressure measurement with psychological status validation10,105,0892018/10/23IOTSENTechniques for effectively and accurately measuring psychological influencing factors, such as the white coat effect and mental stress, that may affect or otherwise influence biometric measurements, such as blood pressure measurements, are described. Embodiments of a measurement validation system herein may utilize a method for determining an artery location on a living subject's skin and positioning a tonometry pressure sensor on the artery location for tonometric blood pressure measurement to obtain pressure pulse data for a subject. In operation according to embodiments, measurement logic of a measurement validation system may utilize the pressure pulse data to extract blood pressure data, heart rate data, blood pressure variability data, and heart rate variability data. The foregoing data may be utilized in identifying whether the blood pressure measurement properly and accurately reflects the situation of the subject.
376Plating leveler for electrodeposition of copper pillar10,100,4202018/10/16ICSThe presently claimed invention provides a plating additive for electrodeposition, and the corresponding fabrication method thereof. The plating additive of the present invention enables to electroplate holes on a substrate with good height uniformity within a feature and among features at different diameters.
377Separator for a Rechargeable Battery10,109,8432018/10/23ICSThe invention provides a coating or film adapted to be arranged between a separator and at least one electrode of a rechargeable battery. The coating or film comprises a first material capable of forming a porous layer and allowing a passage of ions therethrough; wherein, in response to temperature change, the first material porous layer is adapted to substantially close pores in said first material porous layer to thereby substantially reduce or prevent further passage of ions through the first material.
378Charging device having small loop transmission coils for wireless charging a target device10,097,0312018/10/09ICSA charging device to wirelessly charge a target device, including: a coil antenna having a first surface facing a first direction at which the target device is placed for charging and a second surface facing an opposite direction from the first direction, generating a first magnetic field; a plurality of pairs of metallic small loop transmission coils arranged to the second surface side of the coil antenna, to generate a second magnetic field in response to the first magnetic field to enhance the first magnetic field, the first and second magnetic fields being directed in the first direction; and wherein a first one of each pair of metallic small loop transmission coils is coupled to a second one of the pair in parallel and a size of the first one of each pair is different from that of the second one of the pair, such that when a distance between the target device and the first surface is changed, one of the pair of metallic small loop transmission coils is enabled to be resonant with the coil antenna.
379Interference Detection and Mitigation in Power Line Communication10,164,6842018/12/25ICSA Power-Line Communication (PLC) receiver has a filter, a time domain processor, a frequency-domain processor, and a forward-error-correction decoder. A narrow-band frequency detector attached to the frequency-domain processor examines the frequency-domain signal for a highest-power sub-carrier frequency. This highest power is compared to an average power of all other sub-carriers and a narrow-band interferer is detected when the highest power is significantly above the average. When the interferer is detected N times in a time period, a control layer adds this sub-carrier frequency to a removed list and recalculates filter coefficients to add a notch filter at the frequencies of the removed list. Updated filter coefficients are loaded into the filter to implement notch filters. When the current power of a sub-carrier signal on the removed list falls significantly below the average power, the sub-carrier is deleted from the removed list and coefficients recalculated to remove the notch filter.
380System and Method for Organizing and Processing Feature Based Data Structures10,127,2192018/11/13AIBDA method for organizing and processing feature based data structures that can be used in linguistic spell checking and auto-correction, comprising: splitting an original dictionary into sub-dictionaries based on different values of a common feature such as high frequency words; receiving an input text that contains errors; determining a sub-dictionary selection feature from the input human-readable text; selecting the sub-dictionary based on the determined sub-dictionary selection feature; executing a first matching in the selected sub-dictionary, wherein a match is found if a similarity between the characters, words, or phrases in proximity of the errors in the input text and a character, word, or phrase in the sub-dictionary is above a threshold; if a unique match is found, the result is returned as an output to correct the errors; otherwise, executing a second matching with a raised threshold, and repeating the second matching until a unique match is found.
381Compact device for sensing a liquid with energy harvesting from liquid motion10,161,8612018/12/25IOTSENA compact device useful for measuring an absorption spectrum of a liquid, such as water with organic contaminants, is provided. The device comprises an array of light emitting diodes (LEDs) each emitting light with a unique spectral peak. A reflector shaped as a half ellipsoid reflects the emitted light to form a reference beam. The reflector has an opening to allow part of the emitted light to form a measurement beam after passing through the liquid. Two photodetectors measure the reference beam and the measurement beam to give a reference intensity and a measured intensity, respectively. The LEDs sequentially emit showers of light one-by-one, giving plural pairs of reference and measured intensities for estimating the absorption spectrum. The device receives energy from a separate power-providing device through wireless power transfer. The power-providing device harvests motional energy of the flowing liquid to generate electrical energy.
382Anomaly Detection for Medical Samples under Multiple Settings10,108,8452018/10/23AIBDUsing multiple imaging modes in whole slide image screening is potentially useful to reduce false positives. To use multiple imaging modes, a method for locating anomalies on a medical sample from an image thereof uses an anomaly-detection process that comprises using plural base classifiers individually to classify an object-of-interest suspected to be an anomaly. Each base classifier respectively extracts features of the object-of-interest and generates, according to the extracted features, a score indicating a likelihood of the object-of-interest being anomalous. The anomaly-detection process further comprises using an aggregate classifier to combine the scores generated by the base classifiers to determine whether the object-of-interest is the anomaly. The aggregate classifier determines a dependability measure for each base classifier according to setting-based variables of a setting under which the sample and the image are obtained, and then selectively combines the scores of the base classifiers according to the dependability measures.
383Embedded PMOS-Trigger Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) with Suppression Rings for Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) Protection10,134,7222018/11/20ICSAn Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) protection device has a Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) with a triggering PMOS transistor. The SCR is a PNPN structure with a P+ anode/source within a center N-well, a P-substrate, and an outer N-well that connects to a cathode using N+ well taps. The P+ anode/source is both the source of the triggering PMOS transistor and the anode of the SCR. A trigger circuit drives the gate of the triggering PMOS transistor low, turning it on to charge the P+ drain. Since the P+ drain straddles the well boundary, making physical contact with both the center N-well and the P-substrate, holes flow into the P-substrate. The P+ drain is located near guard rings that suppress latch-up. The holes from the P+ drain flood the region under the guard rings, temporarily weakening their effect and reducing the trigger voltage.
384Multi-stage Hybrid Analog-to-Digital Converter10,103,7422018/10/16ICSA hybrid Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) has multiple stages. A first stage and a final stage each use a Successive-Approximation Register (SAR) ADC to generate the Most-Significant-Bits (MSBs) and the Least-Significant-Bits (LSBs) over successive internal cycles. Middle stage(s) use a faster flash ADC with multiple comparators in parallel to generate the middle binary bits, which are then re-converted by a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and subtracted from the stage's input analog voltage to generate a difference that is amplified by a residual amplifier that outputs an amplified voltage to the next stage. The first stage also has this multiplying DAC structure to convert the MSBs to an amplified voltage to the first of the middle stages. Finally, digital error correction logic removes redundant binary bits between stages. Initial and final SAR stages of 4 and 8 bits with a 4-bit middle stage provide a hybrid ADC of 14-bit precision.
385Sampling Frequency Offset Tracking Based On Decision Feedback Channel Estimation10,135,6602018/11/20ICSA Sampling Frequency Offset (SFO) tracking and estimation circuit performs SFO compensation on incoming data. A SFO acquisition module makes an initial coarse estimate using a Network Time Base (NTB) from the Media-Access-Controller (MAC) layer, or from the physical layer using adjacent synchronization symbols. A preamble channel estimator compares a frequency-domain preamble symbol to a reference symbol to generate a first channel estimate. As additional symbols are received, converted to the frequency domain, demodulated, and error corrected, the resulting data are re-error-encoded and compared to the same symbol stored before error correction and demodulation to generate a decision feedback channel estimate. The conjugate of the decision feedback channel estimate is multiplied by the last channel estimate to generate a new SFO estimate that is scaled by a filter constant and used to adjust SFO compensation. Each symbol generates a new estimate without using pilots.
386Static Disk Electrode for Electroplating Bath Analysis10,234,4192019/03/19ICSThe presently claimed invention provides an electrochemical analytical apparatus for electrochemical bath analysis. The apparatus comprise a static electrode and a rotatable unit. As steady liquid flow can be generated on the electrolytic surface of the static electrode by the rotatable unit through rotation, the static disk electrode does not involve any movement during the bath analysis such that the design of the electrical contact in the electrode can be substantially simplified.
387Current-Sharing Circuit for DC-DC Converters10,211,7282019/02/19ICSTwo or more power converters are connected in parallel to supply power current to a joining node through connecting resistors. An output voltage before the connecting resistor in each power converter is sampled and divided by a sampling ratio to generate sampled voltages for each power converter. A current sharing circuit for each power converter receives the local sampled voltage and another sampled voltage from another power converter. The current sharing circuit generates an adjustment voltage that is injected into a feedback loop. The adjustment voltage modifies the output voltage of the power converter, adjusting and balancing the power current delivered by that power converter. Power currents from several power converters are reduced and balanced when the same sampling ratio is used for all power converters. Current hogging by one power converter is prevented.
388Method and Apparatus of Dead Time Tuning in an Inverter10,230,3112019/03/12ICSA method prevents shoot-through currents and reduces body-diode conduction time in an inverter circuit by changing dead times for transistors in the inverter circuit. A sensing resistor senses temperatures of transistors in the inverter circuit. A delay generator changes delay times in response to receiving the temperatures of the transistors from the sensing resistor. A dead time generation unit changes the dead times for the transistors in response to changes in the delay times.
389Methods and Apparatus for On-chip Derivative Spectroscopy10,215,6892019/02/26IOTSENA derivative spectroscopy system for achieving a tunable resolution of 2 nm or less in resolving spectral components of an input optical signal is provided so as to estimate derivative spectra of the input optical signal based on the resolved spectral components. In the system, a first dispersive-element structure spectrally decomposes the input optical signal into subband signals. A second dispersive-element structure receives part or all of the subband signals and spectrally decomposes the received subband signals to plural spectral components. A material having a temperature-variant refractive index is used to build the second dispersive-element structure, enabling a shift of center wavelength of each spectral component as small as 2 nm of less upon changing a temperature of the second dispersive-element structure. By obtaining three spectral-component sets obtained at three different predetermined temperatures with the center-wavelength shift of 2 nm or less, first- and second-order derivative spectra are obtained with good accuracy.
390Kernal Approximation on Fractional Differential Operator for Edge Detection10,210,6162019/02/19IOTSENMethods are described for detecting an edge of an object within an image with a fractional differential operator. Methods are also described for calculating 3D information using a strip pattern and the disclosed edge detection method. The fractional differential operator may be a modified Riesz space fractional differential operator. When calculating the fractional derivative of the image, a kernel approximation, in which a scaled Gaussian kernel function or a simplified scaled Gaussian kernel function, is applied to discretize the modified Riesz space fractional differential operator locally. The disclosed method improves the accuracy of edge detection, eliminates the need of applying additional fractional integration for noise suppression, and requires a smaller mask length to achieve desired accuracy.
391Systems and Methods for Synchronization Target Selection in Wireless Networks10,212,6772019/02/19COMThe present disclosure relates to methods and systems for selection of synchronization targets. Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for selecting a synchronization target for a network device, within operational network constraints, when the network device loses its current synchronization target. When a network device loses its current synchronization target, the stratum index of the network device is downgraded to an artificial stratum index before a selection of a new synchronization target is made. The artificial stratum index is broadcast to children network devices. Downgrading the stratum index to an artificial stratum index allows for selection of available synchronization target network devices with stratum indices higher than or equal to the network device's stratum index. After selection of a new synchronization target, the network device's stratum index is updated, and the new updated stratum index of the network device is broadcast to the children network devices of the network device.
392Systems and Methods for Synchronization Signal Timeslot Reselection for Synchronization Target Selection in Networks10,244,4952019/03/26COMMethods and systems which provide for synchronization target selection by configuring a network device to reselect a synchronization signal transmission timeslot for synchronization target searching by the network device are described. Synchronization signal timeslot reselection may provide for downgrading a current stratum index to an artificial stratum index that does not accurately indicate a number of hops between the network device and a global synchronization source to allow for selection of available synchronization targets with stratum indices that are higher than or equal to the network device's stratum index without causing a synchronization loop. A synchronization signal pattern cycle structure having synchronization signal timeslots organized into multiple subcycles for accommodating synchronization signal timeslot reselection is utilized according to embodiments.
393Secure BLE Broadcast System for Location Based Service10,219,1062019/02/26COMThe present disclosure relates to methods and systems for generation of a beacon identifier (ID) for increased security of a system for a location based service. The system includes a beacon device, such as a BLE device, a mobile device, and a server. The beacon device is configured to generate a beacon ID based on a beacon device identifier, such as a unique device identifier, of a beacon device and a time value. In some implementations, generation of the beacon ID includes a pseudorandom function and a shared key that is established between the beacon device and the server.
394Method and Apparatus for Channel State Information (CSI) reporting in a Massive MIMO Communications System10,277,2962019/04/30COMProvided is a method of base station (BS) for channel state information (CSI) acquisition in a massive multiple input/multiple output (MIMO) communication system. The method comprises the steps at the BS of sending a set of beamformed reference signals (RSs) to a user equipment (UE) and receiving from said UE an indication of a subset of said set of beamformed RSs and CSI acquired by said UE for only said subset of said set of beamformed RSs. Also provided is a further method and a user equipment (UE) for CSI acquisition. The further method comprises the steps at the UE of receiving from the BS the set of beamformed RSs; estimating a channel of each RS comprising said set of beamformed RSs; selecting a subset of said set of beamformed RSs; acquiring CSI for only said selected subset of said set of beamformed RSs; and communicating to said BS an indication of said selected subset of said set of beamformed RSs and reporting the CSI acquired for said selected subset of said set of beamformed RSs.
395Wireless Power Transmitter10,250,0762019/04/02ICSA wireless power transmitter that supplies power to a load. The wireless power transmitter includes an inverter, a voltage phase detector, a current phase detector, a phase difference counter, a controller and an impedance tuning circuit. The phase difference counter counts a phase difference between the voltage phase and the current phase at the output port of the inverter. The controller receives the phase difference from the phase difference counter and generates a control signal that changes an output impedance of the inverter in response to changes of a varying impedance of the load that is coupled with the output port of the inverter wirelessly. The impedance tuning circuit receives the control signal from the controller and tunes an imaginary part of the output impedance of the inverter to zero in order to maximize a power transfer efficiency from the wireless power transmitter to the load.
396RC Oscillator That Uses Thermometer Codes to Select a Sub-Array and Binary Codes to Select Capacitors or Resistors Within a Sub-Array for Linear and Monotonic Tuning10,305,4252019/05/28ICSAn RC oscillator has a variable capacitor that sets the output frequency. The variable capacitor has m binary-weighted switched capacitor arrays, and each binary-weighted switched capacitor array has binary-weighted capacitors. p binary bits are decoded into an m-bit thermometer code that selects one of the m binary-weighted switched capacitor arrays to use n binary bits to switch its binary-weighted capacitors. Other binary-weighted switched capacitor arrays have all their capacitors switched on, or all their capacitors switched off by the thermometer code. The smallest or unit capacitance of each binary-weighted switched capacitor array is adjusted to compensate for the non-linear reciprocal relationship of frequency being proportional to 1/RC. The unit capacitance is increased for each successive binary-weighted switched capacitor array to reset to the ideal linear relationship of the (p,n)-bit code to frequency.
397Beam-Steering Apparatus with Fast Response and Enhanced Steering Resolution10,331,0082019/06/25IOTSENA device for controllably deflecting a first circularly-polarized (CP) light beam from an incident direction with fast response comprises a polarization selector (PS) to adjust the incident light beam's sense of rotation to a desired one to form a second CP light beam, and a polarization grating (PG) to deflect the second CP light beam according to the desired sense of rotation. The PS comprises an optical modulator sandwiched between two quarter-wave plates. The optical modulator has at least one ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) half-wave plate (HWP) being reconfigurable in fast axis orientation. The device has a fast response in beam steering due to a short time of reconfiguring the FLC HWP. Based on serially cascading multiple units each being this device, a beam-steering apparatus having fast response and enhanced steering resolution is obtained. The apparatus is usable for enhancing a field of view in projecting an image.
398Cell Search in a Wireless Network10,334,5162019/06/25COMThe present disclosure relates to methods, devices, and systems for cell identification. For example, the systems, devices, and methods described herein may be used to detecting a secondary synchronization signal (SSS) index. In an aspect of the present disclosure, a method includes detecting, at an electronic device, a first SSS index based on a comparison between a first power value and a first threshold. The first power value is associated with a correlation power result between a received signal from a base station and a local SSS. The method also include determining, at the electronic device, a second threshold based on the first power value, and performing a comparison between a second power value and the second threshold. The second power value is determined based on the received signal.
399Reducing Fringe Field Effect for Spatial Light Modulator10,416,4982019/09/17IOTSENA spatial light modulator (SLM) configured to reduce a fringe field effect (FFE) is provided. The SLM comprises pixels each having a liquid crystal (LC) on a pixel region. At least one pixel is an optimized pixel. The LC of the optimized pixel has an inhomogeneous distribution of pretilt angle or anchoring energy over the pixel region. The inhomogeneous distribution is selected to oppose the FFE. In one embodiment, the optimized pixel is partitioned into an outer region and an interior region. The outer region is an area between the optimized-pixel boundary and a pre-determined distance inwardly therefrom. The inhomogeneous distribution has one value of the pretilt angle or anchoring energy over the outer region and another value over the interior region. In another embodiment, a polymer stabilized network with an inhomogeneous polymerization degree over the pixel region is used to configure the LC layer to oppose the FFE.
400Method and Apparatus for Fine Timing Offset Estimation10,367,5942019/07/30COMProvided is a method of determining timing of arrival of a signal on a path to a receiver in a mobile wireless communications system. The method comprises obtaining a channel impulse response (CIR) of a signal received at the receiver and deriving a power characteristic of the CIR. The method includes producing a first derivative of the power characteristic with respect to time, selecting some or all extrema from the first derivative of the power characteristic as indicative of candidate signal paths, and selecting one or more of said candidate signal paths. The method preferably includes determining timing of arrival of a signal on a first path of arrival at the receiver by assessing an energy value of each of said candidate signal paths against a threshold value.
401Method and Apparatus for Determining Channel State Information (CSI) in a Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) Wireless Communication System10,348,3842019/07/09COMProvided is a method of determining Channel State Information (CSI) in a multiple input/multiple output (MIMO) wireless communication system. The CSI may comprise a Precoding Matrix Indicator (PMI) and/or a Rank Indicator (RI). The method comprises, for a matrix of channels comprising a link between a gNodeB (gNB) and a user equipment (UE), determining correlation values between all Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) vectors and the observations from the channel matrix. The DFT vectors may include the horizontal vector direction and the vertical vector direction. The method includes selecting those DFT vectors in one or more selected vector directions having a correlation value greater than a predefined threshold to thereby identify a subset of all DFT vectors and determining said CSI from the selected subset of DFT vectors.
402Using Masks to Improve Classification Performance of Convolutional Neural Networks with Applications to Cancer-Cell Screening10,354,1222019/07/16AIBDIn cancer-cell screening, a patient's cells are classified by a convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify abnormal cells. In one approach, a mask having a center more transparent than the mask's periphery is used to mask an input image containing a cell of interest to yield a masked image. Since the cell is usually located around an image center, and since the image often contains irrelevant objects, such as normal cells and micro-organisms, around an image periphery, interference due to the irrelevant objects in training the CNN and in classification is diminished by using the masked image rather than the original one. In another approach, masking is applied to feature maps before classification. In the CNN, this masking is accomplished by convolving each feature map with a convolutional kernel to produce an intermediate feature map followed by chopping off a peripheral region thereof to yield a downsized feature map.
403Duty Cycle Controller with Calibration Circuit10,418,9782019/09/17ICSAn integrator in a duty-cycle adjustment circuit has an adjustable charging current provided by a switched current-source array in response to configuration signals from the calibration logic. The integrator's ramp voltage is compared to a threshold voltage by a comparator to generate an output clock. A tunable voltage reference generates a reference voltage that can be tuned by configuration signals from the calibration logic. The reference voltage is divided by a tunable voltage divider, which selects different fractions of the reference voltage for use as the threshold voltage. During calibration, calibration logic repeatedly raises the reference voltage or reduces the charging current from the switched current-source array until a peak voltage of the ramp voltage equals the reference voltage, when a zero duty onset detector detects that the output clock has stopped pulsing. The configuration signals at the zero duty onset condition are stored and used for normal operation.
404Rating and Advising for Selection of Augmented Reality Markers10,496,6942019/12/03CCTFor an augmented reality (AR) content creation system having a marker database, when a user requests this system to use a first sub-image of an image to update the marker database, this system computes a suitability score of the first sub-image for rating feature richness of the first sub-image and uniqueness thereof against existing markers in the marker database. When the suitability score is less than a threshold value, a second sub-image of the image having a suitability score not less than the threshold value and completely containing the first sub-image is searched. Then the second sub-image, the suitability score thereof and the suitability score of the first sub-image are substantially-immediately presented to the user for real-time suggesting the user to use the second sub-image instead of the first sub-image as a new marker in updating the marker database to increase feature richness or uniqueness of the new marker.
405Method and Apparatus for Resource Allocation Signaling in a Joint Transmission Cellular Communication System10,484,1582019/11/19COMProvided is a method and an apparatus for signaling allocation of resources in a joint transmission communication system. The method includes determining one of a plurality of resource allocation schemes to be implemented by two or more of a plurality of transmission points (TPs) comprising a set of coordinated TPs for enabling said two or more of said TPs to transmit data to a scheduled user equipment (UE). The method may comprise determining a bit length of a resource allocation field for a resource allocation signal message based on a number N of resource blocks groups (RBGs) related to a bandwidth of the joint transmission communication system and a number M of TPs comprising said set of coordinated TPs and further include formatting the resource allocation signal message to provide the resource allocation field based on said determined bit length. The resource allocation signal message is transmitted from only one of said set of coordinated TPs to said scheduled UE.
406Systems and Methods for Dynamic Low Latency Optimization10,430,2452019/10/01AIBDSystems and methods which provide low latency optimization configured to perform from the hardware layer across the operating system to an application. Low latency operation implemented in accordance with embodiments is optimized for a specific application, which interfaces with specific hardware, executing on a host processor-based system configured for low latency optimization according to the concepts herein. For example, a low latency optimization implementation may comprise various modules implemented in both the user space and Kernel space, wherein the modules cooperate to obtain information regarding the services and hardware utilized by an application and to provide such information for facilitating low latency operation with respect to the application. In operation according to embodiments, low latency operation is dynamically enabled or disabled by a low latency optimization implementation, such as to facilitate low latency operation on an application by application basis as appropriate or as desired.
407Step Fin Field-Effect-Transistor (FinFET) with Slim Top of Fin and Thick Bottom of Fin for Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) or Electrical Over-Stress (EOS) Protection10,510,7432019/12/17ICSAn Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) protection device has a Fin Field-Effect Transistor (FinFET) with a silicon fin with a step separating a top fin and a bottom fin. The gate wraps around the top fin but not the bottom fin. Normal gate-controlled channel conduction occurs in the top fin between a source and a drain in the top fin. Underneath the conducting channel is a buried conducting region in the bottom fin that conducts after a breakdown voltage is reached during ESD. A ledge, abrupt slope change in the sidewalls of the fin, or a doping increase occurs at the step between the top fin and bottom fin. The bottom fin is 2-3 times wider than the top fin, causing the resistance of the buried conducting region to be 2-3 times less than the resistance of the conducting channel, steering breakdown current away from the channel, reducing failures during breakdown.
408Systems and Methods for Block Based Edgel Detection with False Edge Elimination10,510,1482019/12/17IOTSENMethods and systems which provide object edge image representation generation using block based edgel techniques implementing post edgel detection processing to eliminate false edges are described. Embodiments subdivide image data (e.g., image point clouds) to facilitate separate edgel detection processing of a plurality of sub-blocks of the image data. A false edge elimination algorithm of embodiments is applied in recombining the object edge image representation sub-blocks resulting from the sub-block edgel detection processing to eliminate false edge artifacts associated with use of block based edgel detection.
409Power Supply Switch with Programmable Switching Decision10,452,1132019/10/22ICSA programmable-threshold power supply selector has two power-supply inputs VDD1 and VDD2. The higher of these two voltages is pre-selected as a common supply that powers all transistors and circuitry in the programmable-threshold power supply selector, including substrates under transistors. An open-loop decision circuit is very stable since it uses no feedback. A tunable voltage divider divides VDD1 by a programmable divisor. The divided VDD1 is compared to a reference voltage to generate switch-control signals. The switch-control signals drive the gates of p-channel switch transistors that connect either VDD1 or VDD2 to an output supply voltage. The different programmable divisor values effectively cause VDD1 to be compared to a programmable threshold voltage VTH. The switch transistors switch the output supply voltage to VDD2 only when VDD1 falls below VTH. The output supply voltage remains at VDD1 even when VDD1 falls below VDD2, eliminating unnecessary power switching.
410Apparatus and Method for Performing Real Object Detection and Control using a Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display System10,497,1792019/12/03AIBDAn apparatus and method for performing real object detection and control using a Virtual Reality Head Mounted Display System, and more particularly, when the real object detection and control are detecting hand presence and control in free space, in a virtual reality environment, the control being, for example, gestures or movement, in the free space.
411Frequency Domain Prach Filter for Prach Signal Recovery10,448,4322019/10/15COMSystems and methods which provide for detection of a signal using resource elements in the frequency domain where the signal for which detection is provided is multiplexed with other signals having subcarrier spacing that is different than the signal for which detection is provided are disclosed. Embodiments may provide for detection of a physical random access channel (PRACH) signal in a cellular radio communication system using resource elements in the frequency domain, wherein the PRACH signal is multiplexed with signals of other channels (e.g., data and/or control channel signals) of the cellular radio communication system. A frequency domain filter, such as implementing inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) with down-sampling using indices for PRACH recovery, may be utilized to extract PRACH samples from frequency domain resource elements provided in a resource grid corresponding to a different subcarrier spacing than that of the PRACH.
412Low-Capacitance Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) Protection Structure with Two Floating Wells10,504,8862019/12/10ICSAn Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) input-protection device has an NPNP structure of a N+ cathode formed in a FINFET fin or highly-doped region over a floating P-well, and a P+ fin or highly-doped region anode formed over a floating N-well that touches the floating P-well. The floating P-well is surrounded by an isolating N-well and has a deep N-well underneath to completely isolate the floating P-well from the p-type substrate. No well taps are formed in the floating wells or in the isolating N-wells. The floating P-well and the floating N-well are thus truly floating at all times. Since the wells are floating, the NPNP structure appears as three junction diodes in series, which has a lower capacitance than a single diode that the NPNP structure would appear as when one of the wells was shorted or biased. During an ESD event the NPNP structure behaves as a single diode.
413Method and Apparatus of Dead Time Tuning in an Inverter10,468,9742019/11/05ICSA method that prevents overload to input source and reduces parasitic inductance in an inverter circuit with dead-time control. A sensing capacitor senses temperatures of transistors in the inverter circuit. A delay generator changes delay times in response to receiving the temperatures of the transistors from the sensing capacitor. A dead time generation unit changes the dead times for the transistors in response to changes in the delay times.
41450% Duty Cycle Quadrature-In and Quadrature-Out (QIQO) Divide-by-3 Circuit10,454,4622019/10/22ICSA Quadrature-In, Quadrature-Out (QIQO) clock divider divides by an odd divisor, such as three. An IQ input clock has in-phase and quadrature differential signals. Four stages of dynamic logic are arranged into a loop, with each stage output being one of four IQ output signals that have 90-degree phase separations. Each stage output drives the gates of a p-channel charging transistor and an n-channel discharging transistor of a next stage. Two p-channel charging logic transistors are in series between the next stage output and the p-channel charging transistor, and two n-channel evaluation transistors are in series between the next stage output and the n-channel discharging transistor. Different pairs of the four IQ input clock signals are applied to their gates. When the prior stage output is low, the stage output is charged. When the prior stage output is high, the stage output discharge timing is determined by the IQ signals.
4153D Gazing Point Detection by Binocular Homography Mapping10,564,7162020/02/18IOTSENA system for detecting a gazing point of a user in a three-dimensional (3D) space based on a virtual screen is provided. The system includes at least a processor and a wearable device, the wearable device further comprising an external camera arranged for capturing images of the user's field of view, and two internal cameras arranged for capturing binocular images of the user's left and right eyes. The processor is designed to determine the gazing point of the user based on a virtual screen. The coordinates of the pupil center as determined according to the images from the internal cameras are mapped to the images from the external camera based on a left and a right mapping relationships, which further mapped to the virtual screen as an intermediate screen for calculating the 3D coordinates of the gazing point.
416Image inpainting on Arbitrary Surfaces10,593,0242020/03/17IOTSENA method and a device for image inpainting on arbitrary surfaces in three-dimensional space are described for inpainting a region of a three-dimensional image utilizing a partial differential equation. The method includes obtaining a three-dimensional image on a surface S in three-dimensional space, and each point of the image includes an image point value and a position vector. The method includes locating an inpainting region D and generating an inpainting mask. The method further includes calculating image point values for points inside the inpainting region D and creating a second three-dimensional image to obtain an inpainted image. The present disclosure solves technical problems that previous methods do not work well on three-dimensional images on arbitrary surfaces and improves image inpainting technology.
417Method and Apparatus for Modifying a User Data Path in a Wireless Communication Network10,602,4262020/03/24COMProvided is a method of modifying a data path between a user equipment (UE) and a core network node (CNN) in a wireless communication network. The method comprises the steps of: at a network node handling both signalling messages and user data for an existing data path between said UE and said CNN, obtaining data uniquely associated with a data path resource for said UE and/or uniquely identifying said UE and mapping said data to said existing data path; and modifying said existing data path based on said mapping. The network node handling both signal messaging and user data for an existing data path may comprise a gateway (GW) connecting a source base station (SBS) and a target base station (TBS) to a Mobility Management Entity (MME) of the core network, said GW being configured to handle both user plane data and control plane data for a plurality of UEs. The data uniquely associated with a data path resource for said UE and/or uniquely identifying said UE may be obtained from a Source to Target Transparent Container Information Element (IE) of a Handover Required message issued by the SBS.
418Image Pre-Processing for Accelerating Cytological Image Classification by Fully Convolutional Neural Networks10,586,3362020/03/10AIBDA fully convolutional network (FCN) implemented on a specialized processor optimized for convolution computation can achieve a speed-up in cell classification. Without re-optimizing the specialized processor, a further speed-up is achieved by compacting a testing image of cells, and processing the compacted testing image with the FCN. The testing image is first segmented into a background and regions of interest (ROIs). The ROIs are packed closer together by rearranging the ROIs without resizing them under a constraint that any two adjacent rearranged ROIs are separated by a distance in pixel not less than a minimum distance determined according to stride values of FCN convolutional layers. Geometrical operations in ROI rearrangement include relocating the ROIs and, optionally, rotating the ROIs. The rearranged ROIs are enclosed by a boundary, typically a rectangular boundary, to form the compacted testing image having an area smaller than that of the testing image.
419Separator for a Rechargeable Battery10,608,2262020/03/31ICSThe invention provides a coating or film adapted to be arranged between a separator and at least one electrode of a rechargeable battery. The coating or film comprises a porous layer comprising a layer material having at least a first material and a second material, the first and the second materials being arranged to comprise a plurality of pores for passage of ions therethrough; and the second material is adapted to reduce in size upon drying such that porosity of the porous layer is improved or enhanced at a normal operating temperature; wherein, in response to temperature change, the layer material is adapted to undergo a first phase change during which the pores of said porous layer are adapted to substantially close to thereby substantially reduce or prevent further passage of ions.
420Power Converter10,609,8442020/03/31ICSExample embodiment is a power converter that adopt a 3D structure to increase the power density and improve thermal performance. The power converter includes a bottom substrate and at least one side substrate. Both the bottom substrate and the side substrate are rigid. Each side substrate is connected with the bottom substrate by a flexible substrate and forms an angle with the bottom substrate. The bottom substrate is further electrically connected with a plurality of surface mounting devices which are rigid. The flexible substrate provides electrical connection between the bottom substrate and the side substrate.
421Apparatus and a Method for Inspecting a Light Transmissible Optical Component10,634,6182020/04/28IOTSENThe invention provides an apparatus for inspecting a light transmissible optical component. The apparatus comprises an image capturing module arranged on a first side of a support configured to hold a light transmissible optical component whilst it is being inspected. The apparatus includes an illumination device configured to shape light from a light source and to illuminate a selected portion of a surface of said light transmissible optical component with said shaped light to enable the image capturing module to capture any of a bright field image, a dark field image, or a combined bright field and dark field image of the light transmissible optical component being held by the support.
422Wireless Power Transfer System10,637,2982020/04/28ICSA wireless power transfer system with a class DE inverter for power transfer to a load. The wireless power transfer system includes a half-bridge circuit, a zero voltage switching (ZVS) tank, a shunt capacitor array, an evaluation circuit, and a controller. The half-bridge circuit has two transistors connected in series with each of the two transistors driven by a gate driving signal with a duty cycle. The ZVS tank and the shunt capacitor array are electrically connected with the half-bridge circuit. The ZVS tank includes two capacitors and an inductor. The shunt capacitor array has a capacitance that is tunable. The evaluation circuit calculates a power conversion efficiency of the system. The controller receives the power conversion efficiency from the evaluation circuit and generates control signals to adjust the duty cycle of the gate driving signal and to adjust the capacitance of the shunt capacitor array in order to maximize the power conversion efficiency of the system.
423High Voltage Silicon Carbide Schottky Diode Flip Chip Array10,615,2922020/04/07ICSA silicon carbide chip array containing a silicon carbide substrate; a silicon carbide layer on top of the silicon carbide substrate; a first metal contact connected to the silicon carbide substrate; and two second metal contacts connected to the first portion and the second portion respectively. The silicon carbide layer is thinner and having lower doping than the silicon carbide layer. The silicon carbide layer includes a first portion and a second portion which are separate from each other. Each one of the second metal contacts forms a semiconductor device with the first metal contact. At least one of the first and second portions contains a side face which is inclined with respect to the silicon carbide substrate. Such a configuration enhances the breakdown voltage and reduces leakage current of the resultant silicon carbide diode array.
424Object Recognition10,671,8352020/06/02IOTSENThe present disclosure relates to methods, devices, and systems for object recognition. For example, the systems, devices, and methods described herein may be used to recognize types, orientations and positions of objects, such as objects (e.g., planar industrial parts) in a bin picking industrial environment. In an aspect of the present disclosure, a system for object recognition may project first 3D point cloud surface data to a 2D representation data. The system may perform a matching operation to evaluate a 2D object pose of the 2D representation data and to match the 2D representation data to a 2D object template. After a match is identified, the system may project the 2D representation data to 3D space to obtain a coarse 3D object pose.
425Systems and Methods for Super-Resolution Synthesis based on Weighted Results from a Random Forest Classifier10,685,4282020/06/16AIBDMethods and systems which provide super-resolution synthesis based on weighted results from a random forest classifier are described. Embodiments apply a trained random forest classifier to low-resolution patches generated from the low-resolution input image to classify the low-resolution input patches. As each low-resolution patch is fed into the random forest classifier, each decision tree in the random forest classifier "votes" for a particular class for each of the low-resolution patches. Each class is associated with a projection matrix. The projection matrices output by the decision trees are combined by a weighted average to calculate an overall projection matrix corresponding to the random forest classifier output, which is used to calculate a high-resolution patch for each low-resolution patch. The high-resolution patches are combined to generate a synthesized high-resolution image corresponding to the low-resolution input image.
426Apparatus and Method of Generating Electronic Three-Dimensional Walkthrough Environment10,616,4832020/04/07CCTA method of generating an electronic 3D walkthrough environment of a targeted environment, comprising: capturing a panorama at a first location point in the targeted environment; measuring an initial orientation of the camera whenever a panorama is captured; moving through the targeted environment and at each location point, capturing a live image of surrounding, and measuring an orientation of the camera; determining whether a new panorama is required to be captured at the current location point at where the camera is with the current orientation of the camera, comprising: identifying a sub-image in the panorama last captured that matches the live image captured; and if the sub-image cannot be identified, then a new panorama is required; and generating the electronic 3D walkthrough environment by connecting the panoramas captured.
427Low Capacitance and High-Holding-Voltage Transient-Voltage-Suppressor (TVS) Device for Electro-Static-Discharge (ESD) Protection10,665,5842020/05/26ICSA well-less Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR) has a P+ anode region that is not in an N-well. The P+ anode region 20 is surrounded by N+ isolation regions near the surface, and a deep N+ region underneath that is formed in a p-substrate. A N+ cathode region is formed in the p-substrate. The deep N+ region has a doping of 5x1018 to 5x1019/cm3, compared to a doping of 1x1016/cm3 for a typical N-well, or a doping of 1x1013 to 1x1015/cm3 for the p-substrate. The high doping in the deep N+ region causes a recombination current that can shunt half of the anode current. Since the deep N+ region is much shallower than an N-well, the sidewall capacitance is greatly reduced, allowing for higher speed applications.
428Single-Temperature-Point Temperature Sensor Sensitivity Calibration10,677,6642020/06/09ICSA single-temperature-point temperature-sensitivity sensor assumes that all sensitivity lines converge at absolute zero temperature, so during calibration measurement is needed at only one temperature. A sensor output voltage is generated by current from a mirrored current source flowing through a variable resistor. During calibration, the resistance of the variable resistor and the mirror ratio of the mirrored current source are adjusted. An error amplifier compares voltages generated by unit currents generated by unit current sources to adjust the unit current sources and the mirrored current source. Each unit current flows through a grounded-base PNP transistor. A switchable PNP transistor is in parallel with one of the grounded-base PNP transistors and has its base switched on and off to adjust the PNP current for two measurements. The difference between the two measurements is compared to a calibration target to adjust the variable resistor and mirror ratio during calibration at a single temperature.
429Power Device Package10,784,2132020/09/22ICSA power device package includes a substrate, a high side power device, a low side power device and a driver device. The substrate includes a top surface, a bottom surface and a plurality of vias that extend through the substrate. The high side and low side power devices are disposed on the top surface of the substrate and connected with each other. The driver device is disposed on the bottom surface of the substrate and electrically connected with the high side and low side power devices through the vias to drive the high side and low side power devices in response to a control signal. The distance between the driver device and the high side and low side power devices is determined by the thickness of the substrate such that that a parasitic inductance between the driver device and the high side power device or the low side power device is reduced.
430Modified pseudo-cylindrical mapping of spherical video using linear interpolation of empty areas for compression of streamed images10,735,7652020/08/04ICSA panoramic video stream is compressed. Sinusoidal projection is performed on spherical input images to generate pseudo-cylindrical projection images. A lower-left region and a lower-right region of the image are cut and moved to upper corners of the rectangular bounding box around the pseudo-cylindrical projection image. These upper corners are non-effective areas of default dark pixels with no image pixels. A bottom one-third of the rows of pixels from the image that contained the moved regions are deleted, compressing the image by 33%. Default dark pixels in interface regions between the moved regions and the pseudo-cylindrical projection image are linear interpolated to provide gradual changes in pixel values across the remaining formerly non-effective regions, preventing encoding artifacts caused by abrupt changes in pixel values. Functions may be implemented using lookup tables. Non-focus image areas may be downsampled for additional compression using multi-resolution mapping and adaptive view streaming.
431Systems and Methods for Wireless Device Synchronization10,772,0572020/09/08COMSystems and methods providing synchronization of wireless device data based upon device synchronization prioritization determinations are described. Embodiments may make device synchronization prioritization determinations using device grouping identifiers with respect to a plurality of wireless devices and/or one or more device synchronization parameters for the wireless devices. Logic of a synchronization prioritization gateway of embodiments may implement a prioritization determination algorithm to determine a sequence of wireless devices for data synchronization for facilitating data synchronization with respect to a plurality of wireless devices in a timely and efficient manner. The logic of the synchronization prioritization gateway may implement a priority penalty attribute with respect to particular wireless devices to address aberrant behavior or other operation likely to impede efficient and/or timely data synchronization.
432Silicon-Carbide Shielded-MOSFET embedded with a Trench Schottky Diode and Heterojunction Gate10,777,6892020/09/15ICSA shielded Schottky heterojunction power transistor is made from a Silicon-Carbide (SiC) wafer with SiC epitaxial layers including a N+ source and a Silicon N-epitaxial layer under the gate with higher channel mobility than SiC. The bulk of the wafer is a N+ SiC drain contacted by backside metal. A trench is formed between heterojunction transistors. Metal contacting the N+ source is extended into the trench to form a Schottky diode with the N-SiC substrate. P+ taps on the sides of the trench connect the metal to a P-SiC body diode under the heterojunction gate, and also prevent the Schottky metal from directly contacting the P body diode. Buried P pillars with P+ pillar caps are formed under the trench Schottky diode and under the heterojunction transistors. The P pillars provide shielding by balancing charge with the N substrate, acting as dielectrics to reduce the E-field above the pillars.
433Cross-Product Detection Method for a Narrowband Signal Under a Wide Range of Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) using Multiple Frequency Bins10,785,0742020/09/22ICSA synchronizer generates cross-products of In-phase (I) and Quadrature (Q) samples and stores the sign bits for the sine and cosine cross-products. The sign bits are compared to a local reference of a frame-start bit-sequence and the compare results accumulated as I and Q correlations for symbol and half-symbol sampling. Linear combinations of the accumulated I and Q correlations for the symbol and half-symbol sampling generate linear combination results for frequency bins that peak at a different implied Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) settings. The maximum of the linear combination results is selected and the implied CFO setting for that frequency bin is applied to a demodulator to adjust the receiver's CFO setting and bit synchronization. Computational complexity is reduced since only the sign bit of each cross-product is retained for correlation with the frame-start bit-sequence. Linear combinations can support a wide CFO range.
434Efficient annotation of large sample group10,867,2552020/12/15AIBDA method for annotating a batch of original samples is provided. A first subset of original samples, selected from the batch and determined by minimizing an entropy-mean difference between the first subset and the batch, is used for human annotation to yield human-annotated samples. The human-annotated samples are used as training data to configure an annotation process for annotating an input sample to yield an annotated output sample, and a check process for verifying annotation accuracy of the annotated output sample. Remaining original samples in the hatch are processed by the annotation process to yield machine-annotated samples, whose accuracy is verified by the check process. In one embodiment, part of the original samples corresponding to erroneous machine-annotated samples are selected for human annotation. Resultant additional human-annotated samples are used to update the two processes. The remaining original samples not yet annotated are then processed by the two processes.
435Flexible integrating recognition and semantic processing10,810,4672020/10/20CCTA method for character recognition and semantic for natural language processing comprising extracting a sequence of feature vectors from a sequence of input character images by a convolutional neural network (CNN) feature extractor. The sequence of feature vectors comprises a plurality of feature vectors, each feature vector representing an approximate-match of its corresponding input character in the sequence of input character images. The method further comprises applying a sequential classifier sequentially as a sliding window of a size of a plurality consecutive feature vectors upon the sequence of feature vectors from a first feature vector in the sequence of feature vectors to the last feature vector in the sequence of feature vectors; and recognizing an output character for a targeted feature vector among the applied-upon consecutive feature vectors within the sliding window as it is sliding across the sequence of feature vectors.
436System and method for preventing cross connection in wireless charging10,873,2222020/12/22ICSA wireless power transmitter that supplies power to a wireless power receiver. The wireless power transmitter includes a control unit, a resonator and an amplifier. The control unit generates an identification information of the wireless power transmitter. The resonator transmits power to the wireless power receiver. The amplifier drives the resonator and is controlled by the control unit such that the power transmitted by the resonator includes a first signal that carries the identification information of the wireless power transmitter. The wireless power transmitter further includes a wireless communication unit that sends a second signal having the identification information of the wireless power transmitter. The wireless communication unit receives a third signal that is generated from the wireless receiver based on the first and second signals to determine whether to establish power connection in order to prevent cross connection between the wireless power transmitter and the wireless power receiver when the wireless power receiver is not charged by the wireless power transmitter.
437Compact spectrometer having reflective wedge structure10,830,6412020/11/10IOTSENSystems and methods which provide a compact spectrometer using static Fourier transform interferometer (SFTI) cube configurations, such as are suitable for use with respect to mobile and portable electronic devices, are described. A SFTI cube of embodiments comprises a monolithic dual mirrored wedge beam splitter structure wherein mirrored wedge surfaces provide two reflective mirrors that are slightly tilted away from the orthogonal directions so that the resultant beams of light cross over one another and form an interference pattern. SFTI cube implementations of embodiments facilitate highly compact spectrometer configurations having a wide wavelength range, high resolution, high throughput, and low cost.
438Efficient and accurate named entity recognition method and apparatus10,853,5762020/12/01AIBDA method for recognizing and extracting named entities in a natural language input text processing comprising: performing, by a compressed named entities recognition (NER)-model-based named entity recognizer, a first stage NER on the input text to generate a first stage determination of whether at least one named entity exists in the input text; if the first stage NER determines no named entity exists in the input text, performing, by a rule based named entity recognizer, a second stage NER on the input text to generate a second stage NER result; if the first stage NER determines at least one named entity exists in the input text, generating, by the compressed NER-model-based named entity recognizer, a first stage NER result; and integrating, by a NER result integrator, the first stage NER result and the second stage NER result to generate a final NER result.
439Reconfigurable segmented scalable shifter10,877,7292020/12/29COMSystems and methods that provide reconfigurable shifter configurations supporting multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) are described. Shifters implemented according to embodiments support multiple data shifts with respect to an instance of data shifting, wherein multiple individual different data shifts are implemented at a time in parallel. Reconfigurable segmented scalable shifters of embodiments, in addition being reconfigurable for scalability in supporting data shifting with respect to various bit lengths of data, are configured to support data shifting of differing bit lengths in parallel. The data shifters of embodiments implement segmentation for facilitating data shifting with respect to differing bit lengths. Different data shift commands may be provided with respect to each such segment, thereby facilitating multiple data shifts in parallel with respect to various bit lengths of data. Reconfigurable segmented scalable shifter configurations provide for fully reconfigurable data width and shift command of each message of input data.
440Parallel LDPC decoder10,826,5292020/11/03COMSystems and methods providing low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder configurations capable of decoding multiple code blocks in parallel are described. Parallel LDPC decoders of embodiments can be reconfigured to simultaneously decode multiple codewords with reconfigurable size. In operation of embodiments of a parallel LDPC decoder, a plurality of active portions of the decoder logic are configured for parallel processing of a plurality of code blocks, wherein each active region processes a respective code block. The decoder logic active portions of embodiments are provided using a reconfigurable segmented scalable cyclic shifter supporting multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD), wherein multiple individual different data shifts are implemented with respect to a plurality of code blocks in an instance of data shifting operation. Multiple data shift commands may be utilized such that the plurality of code blocks have an individual shifting command to thereby implement different data shifting with respect to each code block.
441Channel signal decoding with unknown station identifier information using power detection and redundancy reduction-based error checking10,812,2212020/10/20COMSystems and methods which provide for accurate decoding of a received channel signal when station identifier information is unknown. Embodiments accurately decode a physical downlink control channel (PDCCH), such as to obtain downlink control information (DCI), without knowing radio network temporary identifier (RNTI) information. An unknown station identifier information (USII) of embodiments uses redundancy reduction-based error checking (performing error checking between data decoded from a candidate control channel data block containing redundant data and a portion of that candidate control channel data block containing redundancy reduced data) for implementing decoding when station identifier information is unknown. Embodiments of a USII decoder may use a power detection technique for identifying candidate control channel data blocks used in redundancy reduction-based error checking operation.
442Method and an apparatus for reducing connection set-up time in a communications network10,856,3442020/12/01COMA method for setting-up a tunnel connection for transporting data packets over a high latency network connection in a communication network comprises the step of, at a module or node configured on a tunnel connection initiator side of the high latency network connection, using a non-TCP connection to encapsulate a set-up connection message for sending to a module or node configured on a core network (CN) side of the backhaul network to offset-up a data packet transport tunnel connection between the initiator side of the high latency network connection and core network (CN) side of the high latency network connection.
443Dynamic multi-view rendering for autostereoscopic displays by generating reduced number of views for less-critical segments based on saliency/depth/eye gaze map10,855,9652020/12/01ICSA segmented 3D multi-view image generator generates fewer multi-view view images for partitions having less salient features. Saliency values are calculated based on a depth map and image processing of the input image. The saliency values are compared to thresholds to map pixel locations to first, second, and third partitions. First, second, and third segmented images are created from the input image using a partition map. A multi-view generator uses the depth map and viewer eye locations to generates 28 view images from the first segmented image, 14 unique view images from the second segmented image that are replicated to 28 view images, and 7 unique view images from the third segmented image that are replicated to 28 view images. The view images for each segment are interlaced to generated interlaced segmented images that are then integrated together into a single 3D image that drives a 28-view autostereoscopic display.
444Digital shunt regulation for a wireless-power receiver10,848,0052020/11/24ICSA receiver is energized by wireless power from a coil antenna. A matching network tunes the receiver to a resonant frequency and a bridge and capacitor generate an output voltage. The output voltage is divided and compared to a reference voltage. An asynchronous digital controller increases a digital count when the compare result is true, but decreases the digital count when the compare result is false. A current-steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) shunts a current from the output that is a function of the digital count. The asynchronous digital controller, comparator, and DAC do not use a system clock, so the digital feedback to the shunt current operates when the target output voltage is reached, preventing over-voltage when waiting for the system clock to begin pulsing. The digital count is compared to a digital threshold to recover transmitted Amplitude-Shifted-Keyed (ASK) data.
445Low-core-loss transformer with magnetic pillar in center of four corner pillars10,847,2972020/11/24ICSA low-core-loss transformer for high transfer ratio and high power density applications can have five pillars including four corner pillars and at least one center pillar between magnetic metal plates. The center pillar provides an additional flux path to reduce thermal and core losses and improve efficiency. Magnetic flux density may be further reduced by having multiple central pillars in an N-track configuration in several kinds of symmetrical arrangements. The low-core-loss transformer achieves a flexible voltage transfer ratio. The ratio can be either even or odd numbers. An odd ratio design is able to fulfill the requirement of future data centers to supply a 400-volt high-distribution power bus. The transformer windings can be traces on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) that integrate electronic components for a compact and modular design.
446Residual quantization of bit-shift weights in an artificial neural network10,872,2952020/12/22ICSA neural network accelerator reads encoded weights from memory. All 1 bits in a weight except the first three are discarded. The first three leading 1 bits in the weight are encoded as three bit-shift values to form the encoded weight. The three bit-shift values are applied to a bit shifter to shift a node input to obtain three shifted inputs that are accumulated to generate the node output. Node complexity is reduced since only 3 shifts are performed rather than up to 15 shifts for a 16-bit weight. The bit shifter and accumulator for a node can be implemented by Look-Up Tables (LUTs) without requiring a Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) cell in a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Quantization bias is reduced using a histogram analyzer that determines a weighted average for each interval between quantized weights. The third bit-shift value is incremented for weights in the interval above the weighted average.
447Controller for a DC/DC converter10,848,0662020/11/24ICSDescribed is a controller for a DC/DC converter of a type having N power stages, where N is a natural number greater or equal to 2. The controller comprises a decision maker module, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) or proportional-integral (PI) control module and a transient compression control module. The decision maker module determines a first steady state mode of operation and a second transient mode of operation and is configured to switch control between said first steady state mode of operation to said second transient mode of operation when an operating parameter of one of the N power stages exhibits a predetermined operating condition relative to a predetermined operating limit and/or a predetermined, calculated or selected threshold. The PID or PI module regulates the operating parameter during said first steady state mode of operation. The transient compression control module limits any overshoot, undershoot or imbalances of the operating parameter levels during said second transient mode of operation.
448Advanced multi-gain calibration for direct modulation synthesizer10,862,4272020/12/08ICSA two-point modulation Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) has a dual-input Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO). A digital data modulation signal is combined with a carrier and input to a feedback divider. The data modulation signal is also input to an offset Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) to generate an analog voltage to a second input of the VCO. The loop path through the VCO has a higher gain than the DAC path through the VCO, which has better linearity. A calibration unit divides the VCO output and counts pulses. The offset DAC has a data input and a gain input. During calibration, the data input of the DAC is set to minimum and then maximum values and VCO output pulses counted, and repeated for two values of the gain input to the DAC. From the four counts a K(DAC) calculator calculates the calibrated gain to apply to the gain input of the offset DAC.
449Optical inspection system10,887,5002021/01/05IOTSENOptical inspection system detects defects of an object, such as an electronic device during manufacturing. The optical inspection system includes a first linear light source that irradiates a first light beam on a top surface of the object along a scan line across the width of the object. A second linear light source forms an angle with the first linear light source and irradiates a second light beam on a side surface of the object. A camera receives scattered light from the top surface and the side surface of the object and captures a subimage of the object along the scan line. An image processing system receives each subimage from the camera, stitches the subimages, and detects defects on the top surface and the side surface of the object.
450High voltage power device with hybrid Schottky trenches and method of fabricating the same10,916,6262021/02/09ICSA silicon carbide diode that contains a silicon carbide substrate, a silicon carbide layer on top of the silicon carbide substrate, two first lower barrier metal portions disposed on the silicon carbide layer and separated from each other along a top surface of the silicon carbide layer, and a first higher barrier metal portion connected to the two lower barrier metal portions. The silicon carbide layer is thinner and having lower doping than the silicon carbide substrate. The first higher barrier metal portion is located between the two first lower barrier metal portions on the silicon carbide layer along a direction of the top surface of the silicon carbide layer. By reducing the leakage current at the junction barrier, the reverse breakdown voltage of the silicon carbide diode is significantly improved.
451Medical image segmentation based on mixed context CNN model10,937,1582021/03/02CCTAn image volume formed by plural anatomical images each having plural image slices of different imaging modalities is segmented by a 2D convolutional neural network (CNN). An individual anatomical image is preprocessed to form a mixed-context image by incorporating selected image slices from two adjacent anatomical images without any estimated image slice. The 2D CNN utilizes side information on multi-modal context and 3D spatial context to enhance segmentation accuracy while avoiding segmentation performance degradation due to artifacts in the estimated image slice. The 2D CNN is realized by a BASKET-NET model having plural levels from a highest level to a lowest level. The number of channels in most multi-channel feature maps of a level decreases monotonically from the highest level to the lowest level, allowing the highest level to be rich in low-level feature details for assisting finer segmentation of the individual anatomical image.
452Seamless switching of resonant tanks in power converters by matching voltage gains at tank switchover10,938,3102021/03/02ICSA DC-DC power converter has an auxiliary tank cascaded to share an efficiency tank's inductor, capacitor, and transformer. Switching transistors pump the auxiliary tank at startup to provide a boost current. The switching frequency is reduced in steps and the voltage gain and power of the converter sensed until the voltage gain matches a voltage gain calculated for the efficiency tank. Then tank switchover occurs and transistors to the efficiency tank are pumped with the last switching frequency used by the auxiliary tank, and the auxiliary tank is not pumped. Since the voltage gains before and after tank switchover are equal, no output voltage deviation or current spike occurs. A voltage sag or failure switches back to the auxiliary tank at a switching frequency determined by a dynamic contour line where the voltage gains of the two tanks are equal for the current power state.
453Method and system for integrated circuit (IC) layout migration integrated with layout expertise10,885,2562021/01/05ICSAn existing layout of an Integrated Circuit (IC) is migrated to two or more target layouts for different semiconductor processes with different design rules. The existing layout file is parsed for data items such as boundaries, paths, text, and cell instances to generate a layout database file with a text format. A layout engineer selects functions from a layout design toolkit and writes reusable code with these functions. Placement functions can specify relative locations to other data items that are dependent on the design rules. Routing functions allow interconnect to be re-routed after placements are adjusted for various target design rules. An analog layout expertise integrator replaces some of the data items in the layout database file with the reusable code to generate a reusable layout database. A layout generator compiles the reusable layout database and converts it to multiple target layouts for multiple design rules.
454Rotational geometric phase hologram with application for fabricating geometric phase optical element10,983,2622021/04/20IOTSENA rotational geometric phase hologram has geometric phase optical elements (GPOEs) serially cascaded along a common optical axis to form a GPOE cascade used for receiving a linearly-polarized light beam and generating output light beams at an exit surface of the last GPOE. Interference occurred in the output light beams creates a polarization interference pattern on the exit surface. A photoalignment substrate, when positioned in close proximity to the exit surface, records the pattern. Advantageously, each GPOE is rotatable about the common optical axis. Respective rotation angles of the GPOEs are determined according to a spatially-varying linear polarization orientation distribution selected to be generated for the polarization interference pattern. Particularly, the respective rotation angles are reconfigurable to provide the periodicity required for the spatially-varying linear polarization orientation distribution over a range of allowed periodicities while keeping the periodicity of spatially-varying optic axis orientation distribution of each GPOE to be fixed.
455Method of processing a received channel signal in a device to device communications link11,026,2782021/06/01COMDescribed is a method of decoding a physical sidelink shared channel (PSSCH) involving physical sidelink control channel (PSCCH) resource grid search space reduction, timing offset (TO) estimation, and reference symbol identification. Resource grid search space reduction may include identifying resource blocks (RBs) having a signal power below a first threshold such that said RBs can be excluded from further processing. Search space reduction may additionally or alternatively include identifying RB pairs where a difference in signal power between the RBs comprising each pair of RBs is above a second threshold and excluding any such said RB pairs from further processing. TO compensation may include circularly correlating TO-compensated received DMRSs and their corresponding local DMRSs to obtain energy or power profiles. From the energy/power profiles, a subset L of highest stored power values and their corresponding cyclic shift (ncs) values can be chosen where said power values are equal to or exceed a third threshold. The selected subset L can be made available for use in a decoding process for a received channel signal.
456Systems and methods for obtaining templates for tessellated images11,023,7702021/06/01IOTSENSystems and methods which obtain template images corresponding to pattern units of tessellated images using a template unit boundary identification technique are described. Template unit boundary identification techniques of embodiments operate to analyze a sample of a tessellated image to determine a template unit size for the template image, use the determined template unit size to define pixel analysis line segments for identifying template unit boundaries in the tessellated image, and select a template image based on the template unit boundaries identified using the pixel analysis line segments. One or more sample area images may be selected for use in determining a template unit size. Pixel analysis line segments, configured based upon a determined template unit size, may be used for identifying boundaries of a template unit. Moreover, dynamic template image updating may be provided.
457Object tracking method and system using iterative template matching11,004,2122021/05/11COMA method and system for tracking a position and orientation of a target object that moves along a two-dimensional plane, a camera to generate video frames of the target object, and a processor configured to correct perspective scaling of a current one of the video frames; estimate a current location and angle of the target object using a motion model or its previous location/angle; cut out a region of interest from the current video frame around the estimated current location; resize the region of interest to shrink its size by a predetermined ratio M (width=width/M, height=height/M) or equivalently reducing the image resolution of the region of interest by the ratio M (resolution=resolution/M); track a new location of the target object by template matching the current region of interest with a previously stored template; and either conclude the tracked target object location and angle are accurate and updating the template if a stopping criterion is reached with indication of successful tracking, or proceed with a refinement method to refine the tracked location and angle until the stopping criterion is eventually reached.
458Controller for an AC/DC or a DC/AC multi-phase power converter11,043,8912021/06/22ICSDescribed is a controller for an AC to DC or a DC to AC multi-phase power converter of a type having N power converter phases, where N is greater or equal to 2. The controller comprises a control module configured to change or vary a phase shift angle of the input current or output current for each of the N power converter phases such that an average phase shift value for each of said N power converter phases over a control module AC line cycle is about, near or substantially the same value. In an embodiment of an AC/DC or a DC/AC multi-phase power converter of a type having N power converter phases arranged in parallel, an advantage of arranging the average phase shift value for each power converter phase to be substantially equal or about equal over an AC line cycle is that it reduces or eliminates any imbalances in the input currents or output currents of the N power converter phases. In preferred arrangements, the control module varies the phase shift angle of the input current or the output current for each of the N power converter phases over each AC line cycle using respective PWM switch control signals.
459Apparatus and method of three-dimensional interaction for augmented reality remote assistance11,043,0382021/06/22CCTA method of tracking a point of interest (POI) in an electronic three-dimensional (3D) viewing environment, comprising: capturing via an optical sensor and recording motions of an onsite user, wherein each motion comprises an image surrounding and a pose of the onsite user; displaying a snapshot to a remote user, wherein the snapshot is one of the recorded motions; receiving a POI indicator in the snapshot from the second user; estimating a 3D position of the POI in the electronic 3D viewing environment using the POI indicator data, a moving trajectory from each of the recorded motions to the snapshot, and an estimation of distance between the optical sensor to the POI center; and rendering and superimposing the POI indicator in the electronic 3D viewing environment to be displayed to the onsite user using the estimated 3D position of the POI, the moving trajectory, and the recorded motions.
460Method and system for bit-depth reduction in artificial neural networks11,106,9732021/08/31ICSA bit-depth optimization engine reduces the hardware cost of a neural network. When training data is applied to a neural network during training routines, accuracy cost and hardware costs are generated. A hardware complexity cost generator generates costs for weights near bit-depth steps where the number of binary bits required to represent a weight decreases, such as from 2N to 2N−1, where one less binary bit is required. Gradients are generated from costs for each weight, and weights near bit-depth steps are easily selected since they have a large gradient, while weights far away from a bit-depth step have near-zero gradients. The selected weights are reduced during optimization. Over many cycles of optimization, a low-bit-depth neural network is generated that uses fewer binary bits per weight, resulting in lower hardware costs when the low-bit-depth neural network is manufactured on an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC).
461Power converter11,127,5242021/09/21ICSAn assembly for power converting includes a circuit board, a power switching circuit mounted on the circuit board, an inductor coil that includes a winding and two ends, a magnetic core that is surrounded by the winding of the inductor coil, and a magnetic mixture that encapsulates the circuit board, the power switching circuit, the inductor coil and the magnetic core. The winding of the inductor coil is stacked above the power switching circuit and is sufficiently large to fill up a size of the assembly.
462Method and an apparatus for improving a determination of HARQ-ACK messages in a wireless communications system11,057,1592021/07/06COMProvided is a method for determining a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) transmission signal. The method comprises receiving soft bits from a wireless communication physical channel uplink signal, said received soft bits being deemed to comprise HARQ LLRs and soft decoding said HARQ LLRs to output a hard ACK/NACK decision. The method includes processing said HARQ LLRs based on said hard ACK/NACK decision such that the processed HARQ LLRs map to a same or identical constellation point or points if the physical channel uplink signal contains an ACK or NACK transmission signal. The method also includes using said processed HARQ LLRs to determine if the physical channel uplink signal contains an ACK or NACK transmission signal or to determine if the physical channel uplink signal comprises discontinuous transmission (DTX).
463Method for measuring concentrations of metal ion in electrodeposition solutions11,124,8902021/09/21ICSProvided herein is a method for measuring a concentration of a metal ion in an electrodeposition solution. The method of the present disclosure can substantially reduce the interference of organic additives and different electrode conditions on voltammetric metal ion concentration measurements.
464Apparatus and method for applying image encoding recognition in natural language processing11,132,5142021/09/28AIBDA method for applying image encoding recognition in the execution of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, comprising the processing steps as follows. A sentence from a textual source is extracted by an NLP-based feature extractor. A word vector is generated in response to the sentence by the NLP-based feature extractor. The word vector is converted into a feature vector b by the NLP-based feature extractor, in which the feature vector b satisfies b ∈ R^m and the parameter m is a positive integer. The feature vector is transformed into an image set having a plurality of two-dimensional images by a transformer. The image set is fed to a neural network to execute image recognition by a processor, so as to analyze the sentence.
465Electrical protective device for low-voltage direct current (LVDC) network11,070,0452021/07/20ICSAn Electrical Protective Device for Low-Voltage DC networks (EPDL) has a controller that on start-up first closes a mechanical relay in a ground line, waits a first delay, then closes a bipolar transistor to allow current to flow through a positive supply line, then turns on a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) connected in parallel with the bipolar transistor once an output voltage reaches a minimum target. The controller reverses the start-up order to open the MOSFET, bipolar transistor, and finally the relay when an over-voltage, input-power, or integrated-current fault is detected. The output current is integrated over time and compared to a threshold, allowing for capacitor charging or other temporary over-loads. When the output voltage dips below the minimum target, the MOSFET is turned off until the voltage recovers. If the voltage does not recover within a time period, the bipolar transistor and then the relay are turned off.
466Method and an apparatus for establishing secure, low latency, optimized paths in a wide area network11,082,2552021/08/03COMA method and apparatus for transporting packets over a wide area network (WAN) in a communications network are provided where the WAN comprises a plurality of interconnected nodes including at least a first communication node, a second communication node and a WAN controller node. The method comprises establishing virtual private network (VPN) tunnel connections on communication links between some or all of the communication nodes comprising the WAN, using a non-stream-oriented transport layer protocol to establish a non-stream-oriented association for each VPN tunnel connection, and, on receiving a packet connection from a source device at said first communication node, encapsulating packets from said packet connection into one or more non-stream-oriented associations between the first communication node and the second communication node to thereby transport said packets from the source device to the second communication node. The WAN controller node communicates to the first communication node a selection of links or routes for packet transport to the second communication node. The first communication node selects the one or more non-stream-oriented associations for encapsulating packets into from a plurality of non-stream-oriented associations established on the links or routes communicated to said first node by the WAN controller node.
467Ink cartridge for printer *D6487852011/11/15IOTSEN
468Bulkhead Lamp Exterior Design *D6496732011/11/29IOTSEN

Note: * Design Patent